Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


2008 (86 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
"Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p<0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60min after the end of exposure (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872MHz CW RF radiation at 5W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR."
Mobile phones and brain tumours: a review of epidemiological research
Croft RJ et al, Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, december 2008
"There are reports of small associations between MP-use ipsilateral to the tumour for greater than 10 years, for both acoustic neuroma and glioma, but the present paper argues that these are especially prone to confounding by recall bias. The reported associations are in need of replication with methods designed to minimise such bias before they can be treated as more than suggestive."
"Our results suggest a possible association between electric transformers and power lines and the XRCC1 Ex9+16A allele in patients with childhood AL."
"Our results suggest that exposure to RF of wireless communications can induce expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 and the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in human LECs. The induction of Hsp27 and Hsp70, by a non-thermal stress, together with the activation of signal transduction pathways, provides reliable and sensitive biomarkers that could serve as the basis for improved mobile phone safety guidelines."
"In this paper the cytogenetic biomonitoring studies of RF-exposed humans are reviewed. A majority of these studies do show that RF-exposed individuals have increased frequencies of genetic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations) in their lymphocytes or exfoliated buccal cells. However, most of the studies, if not all, have a number of shortcomings that actually prevents any firm conclusion. Radiation dosimetry was lacking in all papers, but some of the investigations were flawed by much more severe imperfections. Large well-coordinated multidisciplinary investigations are needed in order to reach any robust conclusion."
"There was a dose-response relation with respect to years of residence in the immediate vicinity of power lines and Alzheimer's disease: Persons living at least 5 years within 50 m had an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.51), increasing to 1.78 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.96) with at least 10 years and to 2.00 (95% CI: 1.21, 3.33) with at least 15 years. The pattern was similar for senile dementia. There was little evidence for an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis."
"Our results show that non-thermal exposure to the radiofrequency fields investigated here can induce mitotic aberrations in root meristematic cells of A. cepa. The observed effects were markedly dependent on the field frequencies applied as well as on field strength and modulation. Our findings also indicate that mitotic effects of RF-EMF could be due to impairment of the mitotic spindle."
"A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can however not be fully explained by attributions or concerns."
"These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects."
"This is the first study to report that ELF-MF exposure generates oxidatively induced DNA base modifications which are mutagenic in mammalian cells, such as FapyGua, FapyAde and 8-OH-Gua, in vivo. This may explain previous studies showing DNA damage and genomic instability. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to 50-Hz MF may be potentially genotoxic. However, the intensity of ELF-MF has an important influence on the extent of DNA damage."
"In TUNEL staining (In situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy-UTP nick end labeling), germ cells showed a significantly higher apoptotic rate in exposed mice than in sham controls (P < 0.001). TUNEL-positive cells were mainly spermatogonia. In an electron microscopic study, degenerating spermatogonia showed condensation of nuclear chromatin similar to apoptosis. These results indicate that apoptosis may be induced in spermatogenic cells in mice by continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF of 14 microT."
Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: a brief update
Agarwal A et al, Biomed Pharmacother, oktober 2008
"The incidence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and defective spermatogenesis is increasing probably due to environmental and lifestyle-related factors. The aim of this review is to briefly describe and comment on the principal lifestyle factors. The recent findings that the electromagnetic waves following the use of the cell phone and the prolonged exposure to the noise stress cause relevant testicular dysfunction in man or animals reinforce the hypothesis of the importance of lifestyle-related factors."
"As in other cell systems, in HTR-8/SVneo cells the response to high-frequency EMFs was detected at the mRNA level after exposure to amplitude-modulated GSM signals. The present results suggest that the expression analysis for multiple transcripts, though encoding the same or similar protein products, can be highly informative and may account for subtle changes not detected at the protein level."
"EMF is a stressor agent that induces an imbalance between ROS generation and antioxidant defense response. Calcium ions may play a pivotal role in enhancing oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory reactions and apoptosis associated with EMF exposure. Therefore calcium channel blockade seems to play a role in brain protection."
GSM base stations: Short-term effects on well-being
Augner C et al, Bioelectromagnetics, september 2008
"Participants in scenarios HM and MH (high and medium exposure) were significantly calmer during those sessions than participants in scenario LL (low exposure throughout) (P = 0.042). However, no significant differences between exposure scenarios in the "good mood" or "alertness" factors were obtained. We conclude that short-term exposure to GSM base station signals may have an impact on well-being by reducing psychological arousal."
Mobile phone exposure and spatial memory
Wiholm C et al, Bioelectromagnetics, september 2008
"The participants were daily mobile phone users, with and without symptoms attributed to regular mobile phone use. Results revealed a main effect of RF exposure and a significant RF exposure by group effect on distance traveled during the trials. The symptomatic group improved their performance during RF exposure while there was no such effect in the non-symptomatic group. Until this new finding is further investigated, we can only speculate about the cause."
"Considering both E:T ratios from 12:1 to 50:1 and Lytic Units, a significant reduction in NK activity was observed in the highest exposed workers compared to the low exposed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation between exposure and LU, while no correlation was evidenced with other personal characteristics. ELF-MF are considered possible carcinogens, and existing data suggest that they can act as promoters. Due to the role of NK activity in host defence against cancer, the results obtained in this study in workers exposed to ELF-MF levels exceeding 1 microT are in agreement with this hypothesis, and support the need for further investigation in this field."
"RESULT(S): Samples exposed to RF-EMW showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and viability, increase in ROS level, and decrease in ROS-TAC score. Levels of TAC and DNA damage showed no significant differences from the unexposed group. CONCLUSION(S): Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility."
"After 1 h exposure to the radiofrequency field, a slight but statistically significant increase in caspase 3 activity, measured 6 h after exposure, was observed in Jurkat cells (32.4%) and in proliferating human PBLs (22%). In contrast, no effect was detected in quiescent human PBLs. In the same experimental conditions, apoptosis was also evaluated in Jurkat cells by Western blot analysis and in both cell types by flow cytometry."
Gene and protein expression following exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phones
Vanderstraeten J, Verschaeve L, Environ Health Perspect, september 2008
"The precise role of transcriptomics and proteomics in the screening of bioeffects from exposure to RF fields from mobile phones is still uncertain in view of the lack of positively identified phenotypic change and the lack of theoretical, as well as experimental, arguments for specific gene and/or protein response patterns after this kind of exposure."
"We demonstrated two important findings; that mobile phones caused oxidative damage biochemically by increasing the levels of MDA, carbonyl groups, XO activity and decreasing CAT activity; and that treatment with the melatonin significantly prevented oxidative damage in the brain."
"The numbers of granule cells in the dentate gyrus were analyzed using the optical fractionator technique. The results showed that prenatal EMF exposure caused a decrease in the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rats (P<0.01). This suggests that prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz EMF affects the development of the dentate gyrus granule cells in the rat hippocampus. Cell loss might be caused by an inhibition of granule cell neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus."
"Negative- and positive-cell controls were included into the experimental procedure. In comparison with control cells, the microtubule structure clearly altered after 3h of irradiation (p<0.05). Significantly decreased growth was noted in cells exposed for 3h three days after irradiation (p<0.05). It seems that the 935 MHz, low-level UHF radiation affects microtubule proteins, which consequently may obstruct cell growth."
Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene expression of rat neurons
Zhang SZ et al, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi, avgust 2008
"The changes of many genes transcription were involved in the effect of 1.8 GHz RF EMF on rat neurons; Down-regulation of Egr-1 and up-regulation of Mbp, Plp indicated the negative effects of RF EMF on neurons; The effect of RF intermittent exposure on gene expression was more obvious than that of continuous exposure; The effect of 24 h RF exposure (both intermittent and continuous) on gene expression was more obvious than that of 6 h (both intermittent and continuous)."
"The tone of the parasympathetic system measured indirectly by analysis of heart rate variability was increased while sympathetic tone was lowered during the call with use of a mobile phone. It was shown that the call with a mobile phone may change the autonomic balance in healthy subjects. Changes in heart rate variability during the call with a mobile phone could be affected by electromagnetic field but the influence of speaking cannot be excluded."
"When phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was inhibited by LY294002, the increase in collagen induced by ELF-EMF exposure was accelerated, however, the increase in collagen observed by IGF-I addition was suppressed. Treatment with SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), suppressed the increase in the collagen induced by ELF-EMF exposure, whereas IGF-I addition increased the collagen in the presence of the inhibitor.These results suggested that collagen synthesis stimulated by ELF-EMF exposure was carried out by the participation of p38 MAPK pathway, and that PI3K pathway may have the role to suppress the collagen synthesis induced by ELF-EMF exposure, and that the suppression of the PI3K pathway may allow the acceleration of the collagen synthesis."
"The postulated presence of magnetic nanoparticles located in hematopoietic stem cells could constitute a cancer risk factor. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can possibly mediate increased level of leukaemia caused by background exposure to low-frequency weak EMF."
"This study supports our previous observation of EEG changes after 5 min pulsed ELF MF exposure. The results of this study are also consistent with existing EEG experiments of ELF MF and mobile phone effects upon the brain."
"The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models."
"These results indicate that relative chronic exposure to cell phone microwave radiation may result in cumulative injuries that could eventually lead to clinically significant neurological damage."
"The average relative SAR is highest in the temporal lobe (6-15%, depending on frequency, of the spatial peak SAR in the most exposed region of the brain) and the cerebellum (2-10%) and decreases very rapidly with increasing depth, particularly at higher frequencies. The SAR distribution appears to be fairly similar across phone models, between older and newer phones and between phones with different antenna types and positions. Analyses of risk by location of tumour are therefore important for the interpretation of results of studies of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use."
Mobile phone radiation and the risk of cancer; a review
Abdus-salam A et al, Afr J Med Med Sci, junij 2008
"The preponderance of published research works over several decades including some with over ten years of follow up have not demonstrated any significant increase in cancer among mobile phone users. However, the need for caution is emphasized as it may take up to four decades for carcinogenesis to become fully apparent."
"Low energy microwave irradiation may be harmful as it is sufficient to alter the levels of thyroid hormones as well as the emotional reactivity of the irradiated compared to control animals."
"Transient electromagnetic fields (dirty electricity), in the kilohertz range on electrical wiring, may be contributing to elevated blood sugar levels among diabetics and pre-diabetics. By closely following plasma glucose levels in four Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics, we find that they responded directly to the amount of dirty electricity in their environment."
"The results of our study suggest that chronic (45 d), intermittent (2 h/d) amplitude modulated RF field exposure to the peripubertal rat increases the emotional component of phasic pain over a basal eaualgesic state, while late response to tonic pain is decreased. The data suggest that amplitude modulated RF field differentially affects the mechanisms involved in the processing of various noxious stimuli."
"ELF MFs have been reported to enhance the effects of known carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in a few animal studies and in several in vitro studies. This paper discusses the findings of studies on such combined effects. The majority of in vitro studies have reported positive findings, which supports the conclusion that MFs of 100 microT or higher interact with other chemical and physical agents. Further studies should address biophysical mechanisms and dose-response relationship below 100 microT."
"Our results indicated that ELF-MF exposure significantly affects anti-oxidative capability, both in young and aged animals, although in opposite ways. Indeed, exposed young individuals enhanced their neurotrophic signalling and anti-oxidative enzymatic defence against a possible ELF-MF-mediated increase in oxygen radical species. In contrast, aged subjects were not capable of increasing their defences in response to ELF-MF treatment but, on the contrary, they underwent a significant decrease in the major antioxidant enzymatic activities. In conclusion, our data seem to suggest that the exposure to ELF-MFs may act as a risk factor for the occurrence of oxidative stress-based nervous system pathologies associated with ageing."
"In this article, we present the model of slow non uniform rotation of the charged DNA-domain/nucleoid for the combined effects of MW and static magnetic field. The solution of this model suggests that the combined action of MW and static magnetic field results in slow non uniform rotation of nucleoid with angular speed that depends on Larmor frequency. The model predicts that non thermal effects of MW are dependent on carrier frequency and also static magnetic field in the area of exposure."
"Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) was evaluated in 31 multi-level apartment buildings with built-in step-down transformer stations. In each building, three apartments were selected: one apartment located immediately above the transformer room (index apartment), one located on the same floor and one on a higher floor. The mean value of measured MFs was 0.98 microT in apartments above transformers, 0.13 microT on the same floor, and 0.1 microT in on higher floors. The mean measured MF value was higher than 0.2 microT in 30 (97%) index apartments, 4 (14%) on the same floor as the index apartments and 4 (13%) on higher floors. The corresponding numbers were 25 (81%), 0 and 0, respectively, when 0.4 microT was used as cut-point. It is concluded that apartments in building with built-in transformers can be reliably classified into high and low-exposure categories based on their location in relation to transformers."
"Overall, for new studies, both brain cancer and leukemia showed small increases in risk estimates, 10% and 13%, respectively. Notably, pooled risk estimates were lower than in past meta-analyses, and leukemia subtypes showed no consistent pattern when past and present meta-analyses were compared."
"Conformational changes that arise from alterations in charge distribution play a key role in membrane transport proteins, including ion channels, and probably account for DNA stimulation to initiate protein synthesis. It appears likely that weak EMF can control and amplify biological processes through their effects on charge distribution."
"The level of progesterone and estrogen was significantly decreased after 12 weeks of exposure (P < 0.05), while no other effects on progesterone level was observed during exposure or after removing the exposure. The level of estrogen was also significantly reduced at 12 weeks after removing the field (P < 0.05). These results suggest possible adverse effect on mammalian fertility and reproduction. The effects of ELF-MF on sex hormones were shown to be partly reversible."
"Microwave radiation induced hLEC DNA damage after G(0)/G(1) arrest does not lead to cell apoptosis. The increased ROS observed may be associated with DNA damage. Superposed electromagnetic noise blocks microwave radiation-induced DNA damage, ROS formation, and cell cycle arrest."
"DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage."
"The results of microwave heating are compared with the effect of ambient heating and a combination of ambient and microwave heating to the same final temperature. We study the temperature distributions during the heating process. We show that microwaves cause a significantly higher degree of unfolding than conventional thermal stress for protein solutions heated to the same maximum temperature."
"We conclude that this meta-analysis gave a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > or =10-years latency period."
"We conclude that, although the 1.95 GHz signal (UMTS modulated) does not exacerbate the yield of aberrant cells caused by ionizing radiation, the overall burden of X-ray-induced chromosomal damage per cell in first-mitosis lymphocytes may be enhanced at 2.0 W/kg SAR. Hence the SAR may either influence the repair of X-ray-induced DNA breaks or alter the cell death pathways of the damage response."
"UMTS exposure may cause genetic alterations in some but not in all human cells in vitro."
Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use
Divan H et al, Epidemiology, maj 2008
"Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology."
"This study suggests that ELF MF exposure leads to morphological alterations of the conjunctiva and reductions in the number of goblet cells. We believe that ELF MF may cause dry eye symptoms."
Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium
Bormusov E et al, Open Ophthalmol J, maj 2008
"Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat."
Bacterial response to the exposure of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields
Cellini L et al, Bioelectromagnetics, maj 2008
"Atypical lengthened bacterial forms were also observed suggesting a probable alteration during cell division. No changes among DNA fingerprintings and some differences in RNA-AFLP analysis were observed for each 50 Hz EMF intensities evaluated. Our results indicate that an exposure to 50 Hz EMF acts as a stressing factor on bacteria which can represent a suitable model to investigate acute and chronic effects related to ELF-EMF exposure."
"Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively), but not after a 28 d recovery period. The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains, on the other hand, was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons."
"With the exception of high cut-point analyses (0.3/0.4 microT), where the possibility of a moderate risk increase cannot be excluded, no increase in childhood brain cancer risk was evident for any of the exposure metrics."
"The results of this study indicate that ELF-MF could influence the RBC antioxidant activity and might act as an oxidative stressor. Intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPX were found to be the most important markers involving in this process. The influence of magnetic field on the antioxidant activity of RBCs might occur even at the recommended levels of exposure."
"The cancer incidence in the teachers at this school is unusually high and is strongly associated with high frequency voltage transients, which may be a universal carcinogen, similar to ionizing radiation."
The effect of GSM-like ELF radiation on the alpha band of the human resting EEG
Perentos N et al, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, maj 2008
"A decrease in the alpha frequency band was observed during the 20 minutes of ELF exposure in the exposed hemisphere only. This result suggests that ELF fields as emitted from GSM handsets during the DTX mode may have an effect on the resting alpha band of the human EEG."
Biophysical aspects of cancer--electromagnetic mechanism
Pokorny J et al, Indian J Exp Biol, maj 2008
"Numerical models are used for analysis of Frohlich's vibration states in cells. Reduction of activity and of energy production in mitochondria, and disintegration of cytoskeleton structures by phosphorylation on the pathway of cancer trasformation can diminish excitation of the Frohlich's vibration states and of the generated electromagnetic field, which results in disturbances of the interaction forces between cells. Interaction forces between cancer cells may be smaller than interaction forces between healthy cells and cancer cells as follows from numerical models. Mechanism of malignity, i.e. local invasion, detachment of cancer cells, and metastasis, is assumed to depend on the electromagnetic field."
"A review of electric field studies provides evidence that (i) diurnal variation in the natural atmospheric electric field may itself act as a weak Zeitgeber; (ii) melatonin disruption by electric fields occurs in rats; (iii) in humans, disturbances in circadian rhythms have been observed with artificial fields as low at 2.5 V/m. Specific suggestions are made to test the aspects of the hypothesis."
"Available epidemiological evidence suggests an association between occupational exposure to ELF-EMF and AD. However, some limitations affecting the results from this meta-analysis should be considered. More information on relevant duration and time windows of exposure, on biological mechanisms for this potential association and on interactions between electromagnetic fields exposure and established risk factors for AD is needed."
"The corresponding numbers for the 0.4 microT cut-off point were 19 (63%), 4 (14%), and 1 (3.3%). The higher MF level in the FF reference apartments indicates that they should not be considered "unexposed" in epidemiological studies. If such apartments are excluded, a transformer station under the floor predicts 24-h apartment mean MF with a sensitivity of 0.41 (or 0.58) and a specificity of 0.997 (or 0.97), depending on the MF cut-off point (0.2 or 0.4 microT). The results indicate that apartments can be reliably classified as high and low MF field categories based on the known location of transformer stations."
"In all age groups there were significant linear trends with higher prevalence of involuntary childlessness with higher self-reported exposure to radiofrequency fields. However, the degree of exposure to radiofrequency radiation and the number of children were not associated. For self-reported exposure both to high-frequency aerials and communication equipment there were significant linear trends with lower ratio of boys to girls at birth when the father reported a higher degree of radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure."
"At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies."
"In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects."
"Compared to other groups, adult rats that had been exposed prenatally to the physiologically-patterned magnetic fields at the low (30 - 50 nT) and medium (90 - 580 nT) intensities exhibited peak elevations of aminotransaminase, glucose, and uric acid. Numbers of cytometric anomalies were also significantly elevated within regions of the hippocampus known for neuronal neogenesis in adults. The results suggest that a common factor in cellular adhesion or plasticity might be permanently altered by prenatal exposure to a narrow intensity of a series of physiologically-patterned magnetic fields."
"Discrimination ability was significantly reduced in EHS (only 40% of the EHS but 60% of the controls felt no sensation under sham stimulation during the complete series), whereas the perception thresholds for real magnetic pulses were comparable in both groups (median 21% versus 24% of maximum pulse intensity). Intra-cortical facilitation was decreased in younger and increased in older EHS. In addition, typical EMF-related cognitions (aspects of rumination, symptom intolerance, vulnerability and stabilizing self-esteem) specifically differentiated EHS from their controls. These results demonstrate significant cognitive and neurobiological alterations pointing to a higher genuine individual vulnerability of electromagnetic hypersensitive patients."
"In conclusion, our study suggests that the long-term ELF-MF exposure may enhance the oxidative/nitrosative stress in liver tissue of the female rats and could have a deteriorative effect on cellular proteins rather than lipids by enhancing 3-NT formation."
"While about 60% of control cells (not exposed to RF radiation) were observed to exhibit about five spontaneous Ca(2+) spikes per cell in 60 min, exposure of cells to an 800 MHz, 0.5 W/kg RF radiation, for example, significantly increased the number of Ca(2+) spikes to 15.7 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.05). The increase in the Ca(2+) spiking activities was dependent on the frequency but not on the SAR between 0.5 to 5 W/kg. Using pharmacological agents, it was found that both the N-type Ca(2+) channels and phospholipase C enzymes appear to be involved in mediating increased Ca(2+) spiking. Interestingly, microfilament disruption also prevented the Ca(2+) spikes. Regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics by external physical stimulation such as RF radiation may provide a noninvasive and useful tool for modulating the Ca(2+)-dependent cellular and molecular activities of cells seeded in a 3D environment for which only a few techniques are currently available to influence the cells."
"Results demonstrated that MF exposure 4h/day increased the anxiety-like behaviors in rats in the open field test and the elevated plus maze test, without altering their locomotor activity, but had no effect in the light/dark box test. Moreover, MF exposure 1h/day had no effect in any test. These findings indicate that chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect in rats, which is dependent on the daily exposure duration and it is more sensitive to void space than to strong light."
"In summary, repeated exposure to the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from mobile phones is able to induce hepatic, renal and splenic tissue damage. The degree of damage increased with time of exposure to EMR. Previously similar tissue changes have been described using lower frequency EMR [9, 11–13]. However our study was the first to expose the mobile phone itself to the animals."
"Our results show that MW-exposed rats had significant deficits in spatial learning and memory performance. MW exposure increased levels of plasma corticosterone, and consequently GC receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and apoptosis in the hippocampus. However, co-administration of the GR antagonist RU486 with MW exposure partially reversed the cognitive impairment and neuronal loss. These data indicate that GCs might contribute to the cognition deficit induced by chronic low-power-density MW exposure."
"A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6W/Kg and 2W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at"
"A statistical significant increase in fetal and neonatal HR, and statistical significant decrease in stroke volume and COP before and after use of mobile phone were noted. All these changes are attenuated with increase in gestational age. Exposure of pregnant women to mobile phone significantly increase fetal and neonatal HR, and significantly decreased the COP."
"Analysis restricted to regular users or to conditions that may yield higher levels of exposure (e.g., heavy use in rural areas) showed consistently elevated risks. For ipsilateral use, the odds ratios in the highest category of cumulative number of calls and call time without use of hands-free devices were 1.58 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.24) and 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.13), respectively. The risk for contralateral use was not significantly different from 1. A positive dose-response trend was found for these measurements. Based on the largest number of benign PGT patients reported to date, our results suggest an association between cellular phone use and PGTs."
"The calculated temperature change resulting from the RF exposure was less than one microdegree. The direction of motion changed from along the concentration gradient and the electrical field lines to motion at right angles to the concentration gradient and the electric field. The average time for the neutrophils to respond to the effect of RF radiation was about 2.5 min."
"This is the first study showing that molecular level changes might take place in human volunteers in response to exposure to RF-EMF. Our study confirms that proteomics screening approach can identify protein targets of RF-EMF in human volunteers."
"Almost three times higher number of bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in comparison with control group. The difference in break per cell (b/c) values recorded between smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant in the exposed group. Regression analyses showed significant positive correlation between the results obtained with two different methods. Considering the correlation coefficients, the number of metaphase with breaks was a better predictor of the comet assay parameters compared to b/c ratio. The best correlation was found between tail moment and number of chromatid with breaks. Our results indicate that MW radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard using the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive biomarkers of individual cancer susceptibility."
"Use of cell phones decrease the semen quality in men by decreasing the sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology. The decrease in sperm parameters was dependent on the duration of daily exposure to cell phones and independent of the initial semen quality."
"Our results show that, under the experimental conditions used, exposure of primary rat neurons to CW RF fields may induce a caspase-independent pathway to apoptosis that involves AIF."
Cellular phone use and brain tumor: a meta-analysis
Kan P et al, Neurooncol, januar 2008
"RESULTS: Nine case-control studies containing 5,259 cases of primary brain tumors and 12,074 controls were included. All studies reported ORs according to brain tumor subtypes, and five provided ORs on patients with > or =10 years of follow up. Pooled analysis showed an overall OR of 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.99) for cellular phone use and brain tumor development. The pooled OR for long-term users of > or =10 years (5 studies) was 1.25 (95% CI 1.01-1.54). No increased risk was observed in analog or digital cellular phone users. CONCLUSIONS: We found no overall increased risk of brain tumors among cellular phone users. The potential elevated risk of brain tumors after long-term cellular phone use awaits confirmation by future studies."
"These findings suggest the possible existence of an athermal effect of RF radiation that causes increased levels of aneuploidy. These results contribute to the assessment of potential health risks after continuous chronic exposure to RF radiation at SARs close to the current levels set by ICNIRP guidelines."
"The research literature related to environmental and occupational causes of cancer is constantly growing, and future updates will be carried out in light of new biological understanding of the mechanisms and new methods for studying exposures in human populations. The current state of knowledge is sufficient to compel us to act on what we know. We repeat the call of ecologist Sandra Steingraber: "From the right to know and the duty to inquire flows the obligation to act."
"The most pronounced MF effect on tumor incidence was seen in the cranial inguinal complexes (L/R5). These data indicate that Fischer 344 rats are a suitable inbred strain to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of MF exposure on mammary tumorigenesis."
"Since 1989 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leakage of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.(2-6) One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAB-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure 7) but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 clays, but not after 28.(8) in our continued research, also the non-thermal effects on tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.(9) We have also performed microarray analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.(10,11) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields."
"There is evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields at non thermal levels disrupts this barrier. In this review, the scientific findings in this field are presented. The result is a complex picture, where some studies show effects on the blood-brain barrier, whereas others do not. Possible mechanisms for the interactions between electromagnetic fields and the living organisms are discussed. Demonstrated effects on the blood-brain barrier, as well as a series of other effects upon biology, have caused societal anxiety. Continued research is needed to come to an understanding of how these possible effects can be neutralized, or at least reduced."
"The combined exposure of the cells to RF-EMF in the presence of ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) revealed a weak and insignificant cytogenetic effect when compared to cells exposed to EMS alone in CA test. Also, the comet assay results to evaluate the ability of RF-EMF alone to damage DNA were nearly negative, although showing a small increase in tail moment. However, the applied RF-EMF had potentiation effect in comet assay when administered in combination with model clastogens (cyclophosphamide or 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide). Thus, our results imply that we cannot confidently exclude any possibility of an increased risk of genetic damage, with important implications for the possible health effects of exposure to 835-MHz electromagnetic fields."

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