Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Pregled vira sevanja

mobilni telefon

FREKVENCE

800 MHz / 900 MHz / 1800 MHz / 2,1 GHz / 2,6 GHz

OPIS

V le slabih dveh desetletjih so mobilni telefoni postali naši stalni spremljevalci. Omogočajo nam svobodo, da telefoniramo, pošiljamo kratka sporočila in dostopamo do svetovnega spleta kjerkoli in kadarkoli. Veliko ljudi se zaveda njihove potencialne škodljivosti, vendar nas je industrija uspela dovolj pomiriti, da jih uporabljamo brez večjih pomislekov.

Mobilni telefoni delujejo tako, da oddajajo mikrovalove (na frekvencah 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2,1 GHz in 2,6 GHz), ki se jih poslužujemo tudi pri segrevanju hrane v mikrovalovkah. (Tudi mobilni telefoni so pri uporabi tik ob glavi temperaturo okoliškega tkiva zmožni povišati za do 1 stopinjo Celzija!) Sevanje telefona pa je seveda nekoliko odvisno od izbranega modela, s tem da nizka stopnja specifične absorpcije (SAR) nikakor ni zagotovilo, da je telefon varen. Testni model, ki se uporablja za določevanje vrednosti SAR, zaradi svoje velikosti predstavlja le 3% uporabnikov, homogena tekočina v njem pa ni reprezentativna za človeško telo. Obenem je neustrezna tudi metoda sama, saj se upoštevajo povprečja in ne najvišje sevalne obremenitve.

Leta 2017 so v Franciji objavili rezultate meritev sevanja več sto modelov mobilnih telefonov. Ko so jih testirali v kontaktu s telesom, je do 90% telefonov presegalo dovoljene meje SAR. Nekateri telefoni so evropske meje presegli za več kot 3-krat, ameriške meje pa za več kot 9-krat.

Prižgan mobilni telefon seva tudi, kadar ni v uporabi, saj vsakih nekaj minut išče povezavo z najbližjo bazno postajo. V zadnjem času pa se je uveljavila uporaba mobilnih podatkov in Wi-Fi-ja; v tem primeru telefon seva neprestano in smo mikrovalovom izpostavljeni ves čas (če imamo telefon nekje v bližini, tudi med spanjem). Mobilne podatke in Wi-Fi povezavo lahko sicer izključimo, kadar jih ne potrebujemo, vendar to po naših izkušnjah naredi le malo ljudi.

Kljub zagotovilom, da naj bi novejši telefoni sevali manj od starejših, je po naših izkušnjah lahko ravno obratno - pri novejših telefonih smo ob klicu izmerili visoke vrednosti nad 6 V/m tudi pri oddaljenosti en meter od telefona, kar je več kot 100-krat več od priporočil organizacij za zaščito javnega zdravja, kot je npr. britanska Powerwatch. Zelo visoke vrednosti smo izmerili tudi ob brskanju po spletu (vklopljeni mobilni podatki).

Vsekakor pa smo najvišjim sevalnim obremenitvam izpostavljeni, kadar govorimo s telefonom tik ob glavi. Celo podjetja, ki izdelujejo mobilne telefone, priznavajo, da tako močno sevanje ni varno – v navodilih za uporabo opozarjajo uporabnike, naj držijo telefon vsaj 1,5-2,5 cm stran od telesa in zmanjšajo čas pogovorov s telefonom ob ušesu.

ZADNJE RAZISKAVE

"We investigate the relationship between cell phones and brain cancer using brain cancer death rates for 88 countries between 1990 and 2015 from the World Health Organization and country‐level mobile phone subscription rates from the World Bank. We estimate difference‐in‐difference models including country and year fixed effects and time‐varying country covariates. We find that mobile phone subscription rates are positively and statistically significantly associated with death rates from brain cancer 15–20 years later. In falsification tests, we find few positive associations between mobile phone subscription rates and deaths from rectal, pancreatic, stomach, breast or lung cancer or ischemic heart disease. Finally, differential effects models suggest that mobile phone subscription rates are associated with brain cancer deaths 15–19 years later relative to deaths from other causes."
Mobile phone induced cognitive and neurochemical consequences
Sharma A et al, J Chem Neuroanat, december 2019
"Exposure of microwave radiation frequency showed significant alterations in cholinesterase activity, muscular strength, learning ability and anxiety. MWR exposure was also associated with significant alteration in the oxidative defense system and hippocampus degeneration. Histopathological observations clearly depicted the neural degeneration. Thus, it can be concluded that MWR significantly affects the central nervous system and may lead to many severe illnesses."
"By contrast, 5 weeks of RF-EME exposure adversely impacted the vitality and motility profiles of mature epididymal spermatozoa. These spermatozoa also experienced increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species after 1 week of exposure, with elevated DNA oxidation and fragmentation across all exposure periods."
"The fifth generation (5G) for wireless communication is about to be deployed worldwide in spite of no thorough studies being made on the potential risks to human health and the environment. The implementation seems to be driven mainly by business interests, not considering mounting public anxiety on the associated risks. In Estonia, an appeal on a moratorium was signed by 1,122 subjects, forcing a hearing in the Social Affairs Commission and the Environment Commission of Estonian Parliament on June 4, 2019. The hearing lasted for 1 h and 40 min. The whole hearing may be found on the web. It clearly demonstrated that decision‑making bodies base their decisions and act on expert statements that tend to be biased and formed by a cartel of members instead of their own science‑based evaluation. Thus, the hearing revealed a lack of knowledge among the Commission members on the risks involved with the use of 5G wireless communication that is exemplified herein. This may create negative consequences for human health and the environment in the future."
Adverse Effect of Mobile Phone on Hearing in Healthy Individuals: A Clinical Study
Jadia S et al, Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, november 2019
"Although our study did not show any significant hearing loss in mobile phone users since 0–25 dB hearing loss is taken for all practical purpose as normal, but we observed significant moderate to severe hearing loss in those participants exposed to mobile phone usage of more than 4 h/day, for continues 4–6 years."
"The National Toxicology Program tested two common radiofrequency radiation (RFR) modulations emitted by cellular telephones in a 2-year rodent cancer bioassay that included interim assessments of additional animals for genotoxicity endpoints. Male and female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats and B6C3F1/N mice were exposed from Gestation day 5 or Postnatal day 35, respectively, to code division multiple access (CDMA) or global system for mobile modulations over 18 hr/day, at 10-min intervals, in reverberation chambers at specific absorption rates of 1.5, 3, or 6 W/kg (rats, 900 MHz) or 2.5, 5, or 10 W/kg (mice, 1,900 MHz). After 19 (rats) or 14 (mice) weeks of exposure, animals were examined for evidence of RFR-associated genotoxicity using two different measures. Using the alkaline (pH > 13) comet assay, DNA damage was assessed in cells from three brain regions, liver cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes; using the micronucleus assay, chromosomal damage was assessed in immature and mature peripheral blood erythrocytes. Results of the comet assay showed significant increases in DNA damage in the frontal cortex of male mice (both modulations), leukocytes of female mice (CDMA only), and hippocampus of male rats (CDMA only). Increases in DNA damage judged to be equivocal were observed in several other tissues of rats and mice. No significant increases in micronucleated red blood cells were observed in rats or mice. In conclusion, these results suggest that exposure to RFR is associated with an increase in DNA damage."
"Mounting evidences suggest possible non-thermal biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on brain and behavior. Behavioral studies have particularly concentrated on the effects of RF-EMR on learning, memory, anxiety, and locomotion. The literature analysis on behavioral effects of RF-EMR demonstrates complex picture with conflicting observations. Nonetheless, numerous reports suggest a possible behavioral effect of RF-EMR. The scientific findings about this issue are presented in the current review. The possible neural and molecular mechanisms for the behavioral effects have been proposed in the light of available evidences from the literature."
"When comparing cells exposed to RF-EMF versus control samples, different results were found for the three cell lines evaluated, indicating that RF-EMF exposure can significantly affect RE-DNA transcription and that the effects strongly depend on the cellular context and the tissue type."
"Our data, thus, suggest the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic nature of 2100 MHz EMF-r. Our study bears great significance in view of the swiftly emergent EMF-r in the surrounding environment and their potential for inciting aberrations at the chromosomal level, thus posing a genetic hazard."
"Exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) of 835 MHz (4.0 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) 5 h/day for 12 weeks) may affect hypothalamic presynaptic neurons in C57BL/6 mice. The number and size of the synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the hypothalamic presynaptic terminals were significantly decreased after RF-EMF exposure. Further, the density (SVs numbers/μm) of docking and fusing SVs in the active zones of the presynaptic terminal membrane was significantly decreased in hypothalamic neurons. The expression levels of synapsin I/II and synaptotagmin 1, two regulators of SV trafficking in neurons, were also significantly decreased in the hypothalamus. In parallel, the expression of calcium channel was significantly decreased. These changes in SVs in the active zones may directly decrease the release of neurotransmitters in hypothalamic presynaptic terminals."
"In conclusion, according to NTP, there is now clear evidence that RFR causes cancer in experimental animals. RFR re-evaluation has also been listed as a priority by IARC. There is also stronger evidence that RFR exposure is responsible for causing alteration of various sperm parameters, thus, affecting male fertility. Although a clear quantification of the carcinogenic and reproductive risk is still lacking, these animal findings suggest that a precautionary approach should be promoted by regulatory and health agencies, especially for children and pregnant women. Caution should also be considered in the development and spread of the upcoming 5G technology, particularly in light of the proposed higher frequencies and intensities of the signal. Long-term animal studies are urgently necessary to verify the possible health effects of 5G technology."
Chromosome damage in human cells induced by UMTS mobile telephony radiation
Panagopoulos DJ, Gen Physiol Biophys, september 2019
"Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from six healthy donors were stimulated for mitosis and exposed to microwave EMF of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) or third generation (3G) mobile telephony (MT) EMF/radiation emitted by a commercially available mobile phone handset. Lymphocytes exposed during the G2 phase of the cell division cycle and observed at metaphase, exhibited chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks) at highly significant percentages - up to 275% - compared to the control (sham-exposed) samples. Each subject exhibited a different sensitivity to the microwave exposure. Moreover, the percentages of aberrations in the control samples among subjects were different due to genetic and environmental factors. The MT EMF exposure induced mainly achromatic lesions (gaps), and secondarily terminal deletions (breaks) in a smaller degree. In conclusion, the present study shows that microwave 3G MT EMF/radiation - within the current exposure limits - has significant genotoxic action on human cells, and human exposure to this EMF/radiation should be kept at levels as low as possible."
"Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"There is some evidence indicating that, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, the carcinogenesis of non-ionizing RF-EMF may have a nonlinear dose-response relationship. In this paper, the evidence which supports a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship is discussed."
"Those studies that are far more effective in showing effects employ real-life Mobile Telephony (MT) exposures emitted by commercially available mobile phones. The present review - of results published by my group from 2006 until 2016 - compares DNA fragmentation induced by six different EMFs on the same biological system - the oogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster - under identical conditions and procedures. Such a direct comparison between different EMFs - especially those employed in daily life - on the same biological endpoint, is very useful for drawing conclusions on their bioactivity, and novel. It shows that real MT EMFs are far more damaging than 50 Hz alternating magnetic field (MF) - similar or much stronger to those of power lines - or a pulsed electric field (PEF) found before to increase fertility. The MT EMFs were significantly more bioactive even for much shorter exposure durations than the other EMFs. Moreover, they were more damaging than previously tested cytotoxic agents like certain chemicals, starvation, dehydration. Individual parameters of the real MT EMFs like intensity, frequency, exposure duration, polarization, pulsing, modulation, are discussed in terms of their role in bioactivity. The crucial parameter for the intense bioactivity seems to be the extreme variability of the polarized MT signals, mainly due to the large unpredictable intensity changes."
"Maternal cell-phone use during pregnancy may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk of preterm birth, but these results should be interpreted with caution, since they may reflect stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding rather than a direct effect of cell-phone exposure."
"This unexpected extent of modifications can hardly stem from the mild changes that could be reported throughout transcriptomics studies, leading us to hypothesize that MMW might alter the permeability of cell membranes, as reported elsewhere."
"Of the 22 included studies, 11 studies reported changes in T3 and T4 levels (six reported a decrease in T3 levels and one reported increase in it); moreover, five found decreased T4 levels and two studies an increased level. In other 10 studies, TSH alteration was reported. Of these, two studies reported a decrease in TSH level and one reported an increase in the hormone levels, while in the remaining studies non-significant changes were reported. Finally, seven studies examined histological changes in the thyroid gland follicles and showed that the volume of these cells was reduced. Based on the evidence discussed above, the reduction in diameter of thyroid follicles is potentially linked with cell phone radiation. Exposure may negatively influence the iodine uptake in the thyroid gland or increases temperature effect on the thyroid gland. However, further research are needed in order to show that the level of TSH and thyroid hormone suppression by microwave."
"It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure."

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