Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


1996 (19 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers
Hocking B et al, Med J Aust, december 1996
"For all ages, the rate ratio for total leukaemia incidence was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.40). Among children, the rate ratio for leukaemia incidence was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.07-2.34) and for mortality it was 2.32 (95% CI, 1.35-4.01). The rate ratio for childhood lymphatic leukaemia (the most common type) was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.00-2.41) for incidence and 2.74 (95% CI, 1.42-5.27) for mortality. Brain cancer incidence and mortality were not increased. We found an association between increased childhood leukaemia incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers."
"The group of men with potential microwave exposures demonstrated lower sperm counts/mL (P = 0.009) and sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.027) than the comparison group."
"Elaboration of structural signs of secretory activity in the PIMs by LMW radiation in the absence of pulmonary pathological changes indicates its potential for cell activation in addition to the already established role of LMW in heat supplementation. This activation could be due to either increased core body temperature or initiation of intracellular signaling by the LMW radiation. This study also shows that the HMW radiation is capable of inducing pathology in the form of changes in the pulmonary interstitial matrix and may not be a good source of supplementary heat."
"The model may therefore be extended to explain results obtained in studies of epileptic patients which show effects on the central nervous system from low frequency square wave and D.C. magnetic fields. In addition, the model also may provide a plausible mechanism linking exposure to magnetic fields from discontinuous transmission cellular telephones and disruption of normal cellular processes in the human brain."
Effect of the head size on SAR for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900MHz
Ghandi O, Kang G, Bioelectromagnetics Society 23rd Annual Meeting, avgust 1996
Increased absorbtion in a child's skull due to less developed skull.
"No correlation between the power spectrum and the subjects age was noted. Such a relationship, however, could be observed in the control group. In the study group a statistically significant negative correlation was found between the maximum intensity of EM fields and HF power spectrum. Thus it was concluded that occupational exposure to EM fields brings about impairments in the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular function."
"Exposure to 2450 MHz RIF radiation at specific absorption rates (SARs) of greater than 25 W/kg (induced E-field strength 98.4 V/m) induced a consistent, statistically significant reduction in CTLL-2 proliferation, especially at low IL-2 concentrations. At lower SARs, 2450 MHz exposure increased CTLL-2 proliferation immediately after exposure but educed 24 h postexposure proliferation. RF radiation effects depended on the mitotic state of the cells at the time of exposure. Comparison of the effects of temperature elevation and RF radiation indicated significant qualitative and quantitative differences."
Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers
Rothman KJ et al, Epidemiology, maj 1996
"We found age-specific rates to be similar for users of the two types of telephones. For customers with accounts at least 3 years old, the ratio of mortality rates in 1994 for portable telephone users, compared with mobile telephone users, was 0.86 (90% confidence interval = 0.47-1.53)."
"In controls, DMBA induced tumors in approximately 55% of the animals within the 3 month period of sham-exposure. Already 8 weeks after DMBA application, the MF-exposed group exhibited significantly more tumors than sham-exposed animals. At time of autopsy, significantly more MF-exposed DMBA-treated rats exhibited macroscopically visible mammary tumors than DMBA-treated controls, thus indicating that MF exposure enhances the development and growth of cancers in this model. Comparison of the data from 50 microT with recent data from other flux densities indicated that long-term MF exposure of DMBA-treated rats increases the incidence of palpable and/or macroscopically visible mammary tumors in a highly dose-related fashion. Determination of nocturnal serum melatonin after 9 and 12 weeks of exposure at 50 microT did not yield significant differences between MF-exposed rats and sham-exposed controls, whereas a marked suppression of T cell proliferative capacity was seen in MF exposed rats. The data add further evidence to the hypothesis that hormone-dependent tissues such as breast might be particularly sensitive to MF-effects and indicate that immune system depression is involved in the increased breast cancer growth observed in MF exposed rats."
"An excess risk was seen for breast cancer (SIR = 1.5). Analysis of a nested case-control study within the cohort showed an association between breast cancer in women aged 50+ years and shift work. In a model with adjustment for age, calendar year, and year of first birth, the rate ratio for breast cancer associated with being a radio and telegraph operator--in comparison with all Norwegian women born 1935 or later--analyzed with Poisson regression, was 1.5 after adjustment for fertility factors. These results support a possible association between work as a radio and telegraph operator and breast cancer. Future epidemiologic studies on breast cancer in women aged 50 and over, should address possible disturbances of chronobiological parameters by environmental factors."
"These results support a small association between extremely low frequency and radiofrequency/microwave electromagnetic field exposure and no association between ionizing radiation exposure and brain tumors in the US Air Force population. Military rank was consistently associated with brain tumor risk. Officers were more likely than enlisted men to develop brain tumors (age-race-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% Cl 1.48-3.01), and senior officers were at increased risk compared with all other US Air Force members (age-race-adjusted OR = 3.30, 95% Cl 1.99-5.45)."
"These data indicate that mu-opioid receptors in the septum mediate a microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the hippocampus and support our hypothesis that microwaves at a whole body SAR of 0.6 W/kg can activate endogenous opioids in the brain."
"Motor function, memory and attention significantly differed between the exposed and control groups. Children living in front of the RLS had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased."
"The cancer morbidity rate for RF/MW-exposed personnel for all age groups (20-59 years) reached 119.1 per 100,000 annually (57.6 in non-exposed) with an OER of 2.07, significant at P < 0.05. The difference between observed and expected values results from higher morbidity rates due to neoplasms of the alimentary tract (OER = 3.19-3.24), brain tumours (OER = 1.91) and malignancies of the haemopoietic system and lymphatic organs (OER = 6.31). Among malignancies of the haemopoietic/lymphatic systems, the largest differences in morbidity rates between exposed and non-exposed personnel were found for chronic myelocytic leukaemia (OER = 13.9), acute myeloblastic leukaemia (OER = 8.62) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (OER = 5.82)."
"The activity of enzyme isolated from the brain showed a significant decrease after CW MW exposure, but the changes were not significant after 50 Hz AM MW exposure. The activity of the enzyme isolated from liver increased under CW and 50 Hz modulated MW."
"Some evidence for an association between suicide and cumulative exposure to the GM of the electric fields was found. This specific index was not initially identified as the most relevant index, but rather emerged afterwards as showing the most positive association with suicide among the 10 indices studied. Thus the evidence from this study for a causal association between exposure to electric fields and suicide is weak. Small sample size (deaths from suicide) and inability to control for all potential confounding factors were the main limitations of this study."
"The idea that exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields might contribute to cancer causation has been under investigation for nearly two decades. A number of epidemiologic studies have been undertaken, but findings have been weak, inconsistent, and inconclusive. This article provides an updated survey of epidemiologic information and considers those data in relation to the many scientific uncertainties that still persist."
"An increase in both types of DNA strand breaks was observed after exposure to either the pulsed or continuous-wave radiation, No significant difference was observed between the effects of the two forms of radiation. We speculate that these effects could result from a direct effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy on DNA molecules and/or impairment of DNA-damage repair mechanisms in brain cells. Our data further support the results of earlier in vitro and in vivo studies showing effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA."
"The effect of continuous (CW; 2.45 GHz carrier frequency) or amplitude-modulated (AM; 50 Hz square wave) microwave radiation on the immune response was tested. CW exposures (6 days, 3 h/day) induced elevations of the number of antibody-producing cells in the spleen of male Balb/c mice (+37%). AM microwave exposure induced elevation of the spleen index (+15%) and antibody-producing cell number (+55%) in the spleen of male mice. No changes were observed in female mice. It is concluded that both types of exposure conditions induced moderate elevation of antibody production only in male mice."

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