Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


2000 (30 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
"The results suggest that the exposure to EMF modulates the responses of EEG oscillatory activity approximately 8 Hz specifically during cognitive processes."
"The results showed for both radiation frequencies an induction of micronuclei as compared to the control cultures at a power density of 30mW/cm(2) and after an exposure of 30 and 60min. Our study would indicate that microwaves are able to cause cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes mainly for both high power density and long exposure time."
"The follicles with failed antrum formation showed lower oestradiol release and granulosa cell DNA synthesis, but these effects were not related to granulosa cell apoptosis. Furthermore, a high percentage of the in-vitro grown oocytes obtained from exposed follicles had a reduced ability to resume meiotic maturation when compared with controls. These results suggest that ELF-EMF exposure might impair mammalian female reproductive potentiality by reducing the capacity of the follicles to reach a developmental stage that is an essential pre-requisite for reproductive success."
"Prevalence of headache was reduced by more than 20% among those who used hand-free equipment for their cellular telephones as compared to those who never use the equipment. The use of HPs is not associated with a significant increase of CNS symptoms other than headache."
"Our results contradict the idea that the magnetic field association with leukemia is less consistent than the wire code association with leukemia, although analysis of the four studies with both measures indicates that the wire code association is not explained by measured fields. The results also suggest that appreciable magnetic field effects, if any, may be concentrated among relatively high and uncommon exposures, and that studies of highly exposed populations would be needed to clarify the relation of magnetic fields to childhood leukemia."
"These changes correspond to those obtained in a previous study where EMF was intermittently applied during sleep. Unilateral exposure induced no hemispheric asymmetry of EEG power. The present results demonstrate that exposure during waking modifies the EEG during subsequent sleep. Thus the changes of brain function induced by pulsed high-frequency EMF outlast the exposure period."
Semen quality and hormone levels among radiofrequency heater operators
Grajewski B et al, J Occup Environ Med, oktober 2000
"We observed minor semen quality and hormonal differences between the groups, including a slightly higher mean follicle-stimulating hormone level for exposed operators (7.6 vs 5.8 mIU/mL). Further occupational studies of RF-exposed men may be warranted."
"Behavioral, functional, and morphological effects of UWB exposure were unremarkable with these exceptions: (i) The UWB-exposed pups emitted significantly more stress vocalizations than the sham-exposed pups; (ii) the medial-to-lateral length of the hippocampus was significantly longer in the UWB-exposed pups than in the sham-exposed animals; (iii) male offspring exposed in utero to UWB mated significantly less frequently than sham-exposed males, but when they did mate there was no difference in fertilization and offspring numbers from the sham group."
A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia
Ahlbom A et al, Br J Cancer, september 2000
"In summary, the 99.2% of children residing in homes with exposure levels < 0.4 microT had estimates compatible with no increased risk, while the 0.8% of children with exposures >/= 0.4 microT had a relative risk estimate of approximately 2, which is unlikely to be due to random variability."
"Overall, there was an increase in risk for senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidences of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effect; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. The increased risk for senile dementia and motorneuron diseases may be associated with above-average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields."
"EMF itself did not induce NO generation, however, it enhanced LPS induced NO generation in vivo."
[Danger of cellular telephones and their relay stations]
Santini R et al, Pathol Biol, julij 2000
"Biological effects have been reported, such as radiofrequency sickness, electroencephalographic and blood pressure changes and also cancer risks in humans and animals exposed to microwave irradiation. Some European countries (Italy, France, Belgium, etc.) have taken measures to protect their populations."
"Clusters involved many different types of tumors. Latency periods were extremely brief in index patients and a larger self-reported group. The findings suggest that young persons exposed to high levels of RF/MW radiation for long periods in settings where preventive measures were lax were at increased risk for cancer. Very short latency periods suggest high risks from high-level exposures."
"Non-thermal effects of microwaves (MWs) are one of the main issues studied for revising standards. The effects of MW exposure on apoptosis at non-thermal level (48 h, 2.45 GHz, 5 mW/cm2) have been studied. Results obtained assess non-thermal MW effects on Fas, but neither on butyrate- nor on ceramide-induced apoptosis in human Jurkat T-cell line. These data show that MW interacts either with Fas pathway between receptor and caspase-3 activation or on membrane proteins (i.e. Fas receptor or neurosphyngomyelinase)."
"The RF field speeded up response times when the memory load was three items but no effects of RF were observed with lower loads. The results suggest that RF fields have a measurable effect on human cognitive performance and encourage further studies on the interactions of RF fields with brain function."
"These results suggest that microwaves (CW, 2 mW/cm(2), 2450 MHz) produce uteroplacental circulatory disturbances and ovarian and placental dysfunction during pregnancy, probably through nonthermal actions. The uteroplacental disturbances appear to be due to actions of PGF(2)alpha and may pose some risk for pregnancy."
Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use
Oftedal G et al, Occup Med (Lond), maj 2000
"Most symptoms usually began during or within half an hour after the call and lasted for up to 2 h. Relatively few had consulted a physician or been on sick leave because of the symptoms, but about 45% among those with an MP attributed symptom had taken steps to reduce the symptom. These results suggest an awareness of the symptoms, but not necessarily a serious health problem."
"Exposure to ionizing radiation, work in laboratories, and work in the chemical industry increased the risk of brain tumors. Use of a cellular telephone was associated with an increased risk in the anatomic area with highest exposure."
"One could speculate that the cardiac MCs are responsible for these changes due to degranulation after exposure to EMFs. However, it is still not known how, and through which mechanisms, all these different cells are affected by EMFs. In this article, we present a theoretical model, based upon observations on EMFs and their cellular effects, to explain the proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans."
"Suicide mortality was increased relative to work in exposed jobs and with indices of exposure to magnetic fields. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for years of employment as an electrician (OR 2.18; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25 to 3.80) or lineman (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.14), whereas a decreased OR was found for power plant operators (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.40). A dose response gradient with exposure to magnetic fields was found for exposure in the previous year, with a mortality OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.90) in the highest exposure category. Stronger associations, with ORs in the range of 2.12-3.62, were found for men <50 years of age. These data provide evidence for an association between occupational electromagnetic fields and suicide that warrants further evaluation. A plausible mechanism related to melatonin and depression provides a direction for additional laboratory research as well as epidemiological evaluation."
"Univariate adjustment for individual variables changed the odds ratio for ALL by less than 8%, while simultaneous adjustment for several factors reduced the estimate by a maximum of 15%. We conclude that while confounding alone is unlikely to be an important source of bias in our own and previous studies of magnetic fields, selection bias may be more of a concern, particularly in light of the generally low response rates among controls in case-control studies."
"Nonetheless, the presence of EMF altered the ERD/ERS responses in all studied frequency bands as a function of time and memory task (encoding vs retrieval). Our results suggest that the exposure to EMF does not alter the resting EEG per se but modifies the brain responses significantly during a memory task."
"The results showed that the average reaction time in user's group was longer than that in control group (P < 0.01). The time of using handset was negatively associated with corrected reaction number (P < 0.01). The fast reaction time and the slowest reaction time were positively associated with the length of handset using (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The results suggested that the handset using could cause adverse health effects in neurobehavioral function."
"The results suggest that exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones may have a facilitatory effect on brain functioning, especially in tasks requiring attention and manipulation of information in working memory."
"There was a magnetic field-dependent reduction in adjusted mean nocturnal and post-work 6-OHMS levels among men working more than 2 hours per day in substation and 3-phase environments and no effect among those working 2 hours or less. No changes were observed among men working in 1-phase environments. The results suggest that circular or elliptical magnetic field polarization, or another factor linked to substations and 3-phase electricity, is associated with magnetic field induced melatonin suppression in humans."
"These data indicate that MF can increase the proliferation of human astrocytoma cells and strongly potentiate the effects of two agonists. These findings may provide a biological basis for the observed epidemiological associations between MF exposure and brain tumors."
The effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the formation of DNA lesions
Lourencini da Silva R et al, Redox Rep, januar 2000
"The results indicate that EMF, in the presence of a transition metal, is capable of causing DNA damage. These observations support the idea that EMF, probably through secondary generation of reactive oxygen species, can be clastogenic and provide a possible explanation for the observed correlation between EMF exposure and the frequency of certain types of cancers in humans."
"For occupational exposure to magnetic fields over 0.25 microT closest in time before diagnosis, the estimated relative risk was 1.0 [96% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-1.7]. Women below age 50 years at diagnosis had a relative risk of 1.5 (95% CI = 0.6-3.5). For women below 50 years of age who had estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, there was a relative risk of 3.2 (95% CI = 0.5-18.9). The results for residential and occupational exposures combined showed similar results."
"In addition to the VMT, EMF effects on SP were analysed in two further, less demanding tasks: in a simple finger movement task to elicit a Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and in a two-stimulus task to elicit a contingent negative variation (CNV). In comparison to the VMT, no significant main EMF effects were found in BP and CNV tasks. The results accounted for a selective EMF effect on particular aspects of human information processing, but did not indicate any influence on human performance, well-being and health."
"Three groups of animals, microwave-exposed, sham-exposed, and cage control, were studied. Microwave-exposed rats were slower than sham-exposed and cage control rats in learning to locate the platform. However, there was no significant difference in swim speed among the three groups of animals, indicating that the difference in learning was not due to a change in motor functions or motivation. During the probe trial, microwave-exposed animals spent significantly less time in the quadrant that had contained the platform, and their swim patterns were different from those of the sham-exposed and cage control animals. The latter observation indicates that microwave-exposed rats used a different strategy in learning the location of the platform. These results show that acute exposure to pulsed microwaves caused a deficit in spatial "reference" memory in the rat."

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