Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


2016 (40 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations
Waldmann-Selsam C et al, Sci Total Environ, december 2016
"The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m2) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact that damage afflicted on trees by mobile phone towers usually start on one side, extending to the whole tree over time."
"Children without emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 7 years, but who had cellphone exposures, had increased odds of emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 11 years, with an OR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.86) for children with both prenatal and age-7 cellphone exposures, 1.41 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.66) for prenatal exposure only, and 1.36 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.63) for age-7 use only. These results did not materially change when early adopters were excluded, or when children with emotional and behavioural difficulties at age 7 years were included in the analysis."
"Long term EMR exposure resulted in testicular physiopathology via oxidative damage and inflammation. GA may have ameliorative effects on the prepubertal rat testes physiopathology."
"Mice subjected to non-modulated microwave exposure had significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased intracellular calcium and nitric oxide levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and also had increased glucose and corticosterone levels in blood compared to control mice. These non-modulated microwave-exposed mice exhibited anxiety-like and depression-like behaviours."
"The number and severity of migraine headaches were correlated significantly with an increased use of mobile phones during day and Wi-Fi per week (p<0.05). The usage of fixed-line telephones had no significant relationship with the study variables (p>0.05)."
The Fundamental Reasons Why Laptop Computers should not be Used on Your Lap
Mortazavi SA et al, J Biomed Phys Eng, december 2016
"Our own studies as well as the studies performed by other researchers indicate that using laptop computers on the lap adversely affects the male reproductive health. When it is placed on the lap, not only the heat from a laptop computer can warm men's scrotums, the electromagnetic fields generated by laptop's internal electronic circuits as well as the Wi-Fi Radiofrequency radiation hazards (in a Wi-Fi connected laptop) may decrease sperm quality. Furthermore, due to poor working posture, laptops should not be used on the lap for long hours."
"The results suggest that treatment with electromagnetic field stimulated germination of freshly harvested R. smirnowii seeds (increased germination percentage up to 70%), but reduced germination of fresh M. nigra seeds (by 24%)."
"The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure."
"This study suggests that increased call duration is a greater risk factor for increases in headache than any other type of adverse health effect, and that this effect can be chronic."
Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review
Gutiérrez JD et al, Front Psychiatry, oktober 2016
"The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use."
"Twenty-four hours after exposure to combined or single radiation, significant differences were evident in HSP 90 and 70 but not in caspase 3 levels between the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex at high SAR levels. In the cerebellar hemispheres, groups exposed to a single radiofrequency (RF) and high SAR showed significant differences in HSP 90, 70 and caspase-3 levels compared to control animals. The absorbed energy and/or biological effects of combined signals were not additive, suggesting that multiple signals act on nervous tissue by a different mechanism."
"Almost all of the total measured levels were above the precautionary target level of 3-6 µW/m2 as proposed by the BioInitiative Working Group in 2012. That target level was one-tenth of the scientific benchmark providing a safety margin either for children, or chronic exposure conditions. We compare the levels of RF radiation exposures identified in the present study to published scientific results reporting adverse biological effects and health harm at levels equivalent to, or below those measured in this Stockholm Central Railway Station project. It should be noted that these RF radiation levels give transient exposure, since people are generally passing through the areas tested, except for subsets of people who are there for hours each day of work."
"Mobile phone call duration was not significantly associated with stress, sleep, cognitive function, or depression, but was associated with the severity of headaches."
Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease
Zhang X et al, Exp Ther Med, oktober 2016
"Since there are widespread concerns regarding the deleterious effects of the exposure to microwaves on human tissues and the subsequent potential threat of carcinogenesis, we can conclude that the current exposure to microwaves during the use of cell phones is not safe for long-term exposure, despite the current scientific opinion."
"Referring to a couple European review panels the authors stated 'found no evidence of health effects of mobile phones to humans at current EMF dosage levels', giving the impression that there is scientific consensus on this issue. They did not mention the opposite claims of a large number of scientists and clinicians in the International EMF Scientist Appeal 2015 urging reforms to protect public health due to substantial scientific evidence of adverse effects under currently permitted EMR levels. Even more intriguing is that the authors did not mention the French CERENAT study that investigated epidemiological evidence of mobile phone use on brain tumours replicating the Interphone protocol. CERENAT also reported a significantly increased risk for brain cancer with prolonged use of mobile phones, in line with Interphone and Hardell studies. Based on the publications after the IARC classification in May 2011, there have been calls for the IARC classification to be upgraded to a class 1 carcinogen, as opposed to the dismissal of cancer association by this paper. Without acknowledging these, the authors cited the negative studies such as the Danish cohort study with serious flaws such as excluding corporate subscribers (heaviest early users) and leaving them in the control group (non-subscribers) pushing the results towards a null effect."
"In this review, we evaluated available in vitro and in vivo studies carried out on the relation between RF emitted from mobile phones and oxidative stress. The results of the studies we reviewed here indicated that mobile phones and similar equipment or radars can be thought as a factor, which cause oxidative stress."
"WiFi exposure may exert alternations on the metabolic parameters and hepatic enzymes activities through stress oxidative and increasing of free radicals, but the use of vitamin C protects them from changing induced. Also taking optimum dose of vitamin C is essential for radioprotective effect and maintaining optimum health."
Electromagnetic field and brain development
Kaplan S et al, J Chem Neuroanat, september 2016
"Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system."
"There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the range of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem illnesses - works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention."
"In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation."
"After exposure of R. sphaeroides, grown under anaerobic conditions upon illumination, to EMI (51.8GHz and 53.0GHz) for 15min an increase of specific growth rate by ~1.2-fold, in comparison with control (non-irradiated cells), was obtained. However, the effect of EMI depends on the duration of irradiation: the exposure elongation up to 60min caused the delay of the growth lag phase and the decrease specific growth rate by ~1.3-fold, indicating the bactericidal effect of EMI. H2 yield of the culture, irradiated by EMI for 15min, determined during 72h growth, was ~1.2-fold higher than H2 yield of control cells, whereas H2 production by cultures, irradiated by EMI for 60min was not observed during 72h growth. This difference in the effects of extremely high frequency EMI indicates a direct effect of radiation on the membrane transfer and the enzymes of these bacteria. Moreover, EMI increased DCCD-inhibited H(+) fluxes across the bacterial membrane and DCCD-sensitive ATPase activity of membrane vesicles, indicating that the proton FoF1-ATPase is presumably a basic target for extremely high frequency EMI related to H2 production by cultures."
"Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose–response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness, dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects."
"In conclusion, Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. Moreover, the brain seemed to be more sensitive to oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns."
"The MMW/2dG co-treatment did not alter the keratinocyte ATP content, but it did slightly alter the transcriptome, which reflected the capacity of MMW to interfere with the bioenergetic stress response. The RT-PCR-based validation confirmed 6 MMW-sensitive genes (SOCS3, SPRY2, TRIB1, FAM46A, CSRNP1 and PPP1R15A) during the 2dG treatment. These 6 genes encoded transcription factors or inhibitors of cytokine pathways, which raised questions regarding the potential impact of long-term or chronic MMW exposure on metabolically stressed cells."
"Our meta-analysis provided conclusive data that ELF-MFs can increase apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. Furthermore, there is a possibly individual intensity and time range with maximum created effect according to window effect."
"Life-span exposure to MF and formaldehyde induces statistically significant carcinogenic effects in male rats."
"We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied. The design of our study does not permit conclusions regarding causality."
"Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofrequency radiation emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices can increase mercury release from amalgam restorations."
"The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria."
"Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility."
"In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats."
"Short-term exposure to electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone jammer can reduce blood sugar level in adult male rats."
"Exposure to electromagnetic fields during embryonic development can cause morphological changes in oocytes and affect the differentiation of oocytes and folliculogenesis, resulting in decreased ovarian reserve leading to infertility or reduced fertility."
"Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels."
"We studied groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 20 or 1000 μT S-50 Hz MF and also to 0.1 Gy γ radiation delivered as a single acute exposure at 6 weeks of age. The results of the study showed significant carcinogenic effects for the mammary gland in males and females and a significant increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the heart as well as increased incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males. These results call for a re-evaluation of the safety of non-ionizing radiation."
"According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that EMF has harmful effects on the ovarian follicles."
"Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney."
"Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children."
Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation
Medeiros LN, Sanchez TG, Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, januar 2016
"There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus."
"Responses to MF were observed in both cell lines, but the effects differed between the cell lines. Micronuclei were significantly increased in SH-SY5Y cells at 30 µT. This effect was largest at the highest MQ dose used. Increased cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide levels were observed in C6 cells. The effects on superoxide levels were independent of MQ, enabling further mechanistic studies without co-exposure to MQ. The micronucleus and mitochondrial superoxide data were consistent with a conventional rising exposure-response relationship. For cytosolic superoxide, the effect size was unexpectedly large at 10 µT. The results indicate that the threshold for biological effects of ELF MFs is 10 µT or less."

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