Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


2005 (56 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
Electric field effects on insulin chain-B conformation
Budi A et al, J Phys Chem B, december 2005
"In this paper, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations on insulin chain-B under the influence of both static and oscillating electric fields, ranging from 10(7) to 10(9) V/m. We have found that both variants have an effect on the normal behavior of the protein, with oscillating fields being more disruptive to the structure as compared to static fields of similar effective strength. The application of a static field had a stabilizing effect on the secondary structure, restricting the inherent flexibility that is crucial for insulin's biological activity."
"This review considers electrical sensitivity (ES) in terms of the subjective attribution of symptoms to electric and magnetic fields and radiations (EMFs), at levels below those shown to cause adverse health effects. The use of the term ES in this review does not imply the acceptance of a causal relationship between symptoms and attributed exposure, however."
"Our results indicate that an extremely low frequency magnetic field is able to affect differently two types of behaviour, which are dependent on both the time course of exposure and the imbalance in the brain mediatory systems."
Induction of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields
Girgert R et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, november 2005
"An intensity-dependent shift of tamoxifen dose-response curves to higher concentrations with a maximal response at 1.2muT was observed. Hypothetically, electromagnetic field exposure could contribute to tamoxifen resistance observed in breast cancer after long-term treatment."
"After sacrifice, samples of skin and thyroid were processed for indirect immunohistochemistry or toluidine blue staining and then were analyzed using the methods of stereology. The antibody markers to serotonin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) were applied to skin sections and PGP, CGRP, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) markers to the thyroid. A significantly increased number of serotonin-positive MCs in the skin and NPY-containing nerve fibers in the thyroid of rats exposed to ELF-EMF was found compared to controls, indicating a possible EMF effect on skin and thyroid vasculature."
"There was no association of risk with duration of use, lifetime cumulative hours of use or number of calls, for phone use overall or for analogue or digital phones separately. Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1)."
"We may conclude that EMF exposure of ES-derived neural progenitor cells transiently affects the transcript level of genes related to apoptosis and cell cycle control. However, these responses are not associated with detectable changes of cell physiology, suggesting compensatory mechanisms at the translational and posttranslational level."
"A study carried out in Valladolid (Spain) in the last two years on nesting storks found some alarming effects on those with nests near to (less than 200m) the phone mast(s). Not only were reproduction levels far lower, but also behaviour was both less co-ordinated and more aggressive."
Subjective symptoms related to mobile phone use--a pilot study
Szyjkowska A et al, Pol Merkur Lekarski, oktober 2005
"The large number of young people complaining of headache and impaired concentration calls for further research to investigate the underlying reasons. It cannot be excluded that one of them may be exposure to EMF emitted by mobile phone. The explanation should be sought through further experimental and epidemiologic studies."
"We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects."
Use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Hardell L et al, Int Arch Occup Environ Health, september 2005
"The results indicate an association between T-cell NHL and the use of cellular and cordless telephones, however based on low numbers and must be interpreted with caution. Regarding B-cell NHL no association was found."
"The duration of possession and the daily transmission time correlated negatively with the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (r = -0.12 and r = -0.19, respectively), and positively with the proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (r = 0.12 and r = 0.28, respectively). The low and high transmitter groups also differed in the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (48.7% vs. 40.6%). The prolonged use of cell phones may have negative effects on the sperm motility characteristics."
"Significant changes had been observed in exposed neurons in the expression of GABA receptor. (P < 0.01). The expression of GABA receptor of neurons were significantly regulated by 900 MHz microwave, and a power "window" effect was observed in the exposed neurons."
"ELF-EMF radiation resulted in a time-dependent increase of micronuclei, which became significant after 10 h of intermittent exposure at a flux density of 1 mT. After approximately 15 h a constant level of micronuclei of about three times the basal level was reached. In addition, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 10-fold above basal levels. Our data strongly indicate a clastogenic potential of intermittent low-frequency electromagnetic fields, which may lead to considerable chromosomal damage in dividing cells."
"Melatonin caused a significant decrease in urinary NAG activity and MDA levels which were increased because of EMR exposure. CAPE also reduced elevated MDA levels in EMR exposed renal tissue, but the effect of melatonin was more potent than that of CAPE. Furthermore, treatment of EMR exposed rats with melatonin increased activities of SOD and GSH-Px to higher levels than those of control rats. In conclusion, melatonin and CAPE prevent renal tubular injury by reducing oxidative stress and protect the kidney from oxidative damage induced by 900 MHz mobile phone. Nevertheless, melatonin seems to be a more potent antioxidant compared with CAPE in kidney."
Effect of 902 MHz mobile phone transmission on cognitive function in children
Preece AW et al, Bioelectromagnetics Suppl, avgust 2005
"There was a tendency for reaction time to be shorter during exposure to radiation than in the sham (baseline) condition, an effect that was most marked for simple reaction time. However, no effects reached statistical significance after Bonferroni correction. Therefore, we conclude that this study on 18 children did not replicate our earlier finding in adults that exposure to microwave radiation was associated with a reduction in reaction time. It should be noted that the present study investigated the effects of radiation from a GSM handset, whereas in our previous study the effect on reaction time was observed only with a more powerful analogue handset."
"The concentrations of total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were higher among persons with higher melatonin excretion. Similar associations were seen between melatonin excretion and helper T cells and NK cells when the data were analyzed as continuous variables (table 10). Therefore, we then evaluated the association between exposure to RF and immune markers among persons with total overnight melatonin excretion above and below the median (table 11). Paradoxically, associations between RF exposure and immune markers were found among persons with melatonin excretion below the median but not among persons with melatonin excretion above the median. For the group of individuals with low melatonin excretion, the concentrations of total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, total T cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells were all significantly increased among persons in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of household RF exposure."
"We observed that 221 genes altered their expression after a 2-h exposure. The number of affected genes increased to 759 after a 6-h exposure. Functional classification of the affected genes reveals that apoptosis-related genes were among the upregulated ones and the cell cycle genes among the downregulated ones. We observed no significant increase in the expression of heat shock genes. These results indicate that the RF fields at 2.45 GHz can alter gene expression in cultured human cells through non-thermal mechanism."
"In this study, the effects of exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and triiodothronine-thyroxin (T3-T4) hormones levels of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Thirty rats were used in three independent groups, 10 of which were control (without stress and EMF), 10 of which were exposed to 900 MHz EMF and 10 of which were sham-exposed. The exposures were performed 30 min/day, for 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 900 MHz EMF. Sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the study groups except with no EMF exposure. The concentration of TSH and T3-T4 hormones in the rat serum was measured by using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method for TSH and a radio-immunoassay (RIA) method for T3 and T4 hormones. TSH values and T3-T4 at the 900 MHz EMF group were significantly lower than the sham-exposed group (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in serum TSH values and T3-T4 hormone concentrations between the control and the sham-exposed group (p>0.05). These results indicate that 900 MHz EMF emitted by cellular telephones decrease serum TSH and T3-T4 levels."
"The results indicate certain alterations of cutaneous and thyroid MC in rats exposed to EMF. However, the possible outcome of changes in the MC population under EMF influence on morphophysiological properties of other structures in skin and thyroid requires further investigation."
"In the EMR-exposed group, while tissue MDA and urine NAG levels increased, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities were reduced. Melatonin treatment reversed these effects as well. In this study, the increase in MDA levels of renal tissue and in urine NAG and also the decrease in renal SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanism induced by 900-MHz mobile phone exposure, and melatonin, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorated oxidative tissue injury in rat kidney. These results show that melatonin may exhibit a protective effect on mobile phone-induced renal impairment in rats."
Comparison of Electromagnetic Absorption Characteristics in the Head of Adult and a Children for 1800 MHz Mobile Phones
Fernandez C et al, Conference Proceeding from the 2005 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwave and Optoelectronics, julij 2005
"It is shown that in similar conditions, the SAR calculated for the children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10 years old child model, values around 80% higher than those for adults were obtained."
"Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 +/- 0.02 microT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 +/- 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 +/- 21% and 21 +/- 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure."
"Digital phones yielded OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.05-3.8, whereas for cordless phones OR was not significantly increased. In the multivariate analysis, analogue phones represented a significant risk factor for acoustic neuroma."
"The problem of the influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of cellular phones (CP) on the health of children and teenagers is considered in this article. The results of the researchs indicate the increased sensitivity of the children and of the teenagers to this kind of radiation. Direct indicators of electromagnetic influence can be infringement of sleep, decrease of the memory, fatigue, breach of a blood-brain barrier permeability, changes in nervous cells of a brain. As the remote consequences the development of tumors of a brain and acoustic nerve are predicted. However all these results require the realization of independent repeated researches. WHO (World Health Organization) recommends to use "Precautionary principle" with the purposes of decreasing of the risk. Russian National Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection recommended to limit the use of CP by children and teenagers under 16 years old."
"A novel experimental system was used to investigate the localized effects of microwave radiation on bovine eye lenses in culture for over 2 weeks. Using this setup, we found clear evidence that this radiation has a significant impact on the eye lens. At the macroscopic level, it is demonstrated that exposure to a few mW at 1 GHz for over 36 h affects the optical function of the lens. Most importantly, self-recovery occurs if the exposure is interrupted. At the microscopic level, close examination of the lens indicates that the interaction mechanism is completely different from the mechanism-causing cataract via temperature increase. Contrary to the latter's effect, that is particularly pronounced in the vicinity of the sutures and it is assumed to be a result of local friction between the edges of the fibers consisting the lens. Even if macroscopically the lens has recovered from the irradiation, microscopically the indicators of radiation impact remain."
"Among the 63 peer reviewed scientific reports, the conclusions from 29 studies (46%) did not indicate increased damage to the genetic material, as assessed from DNA strand breaks, incidence of chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), in EMF exposed cells as compared with sham exposed and/or unexposed cells, while those from 14 investigations (22%) have suggested an increase in such damage in EMF exposed cells. The observations from 20 other studies (32%) were inconclusive. This study reviews the investigations published in peer reviewed scientific journals during 1990-2003 and attempts to identify probable reason(s) for the conflicting results. Recommendations are made for future research to address some of the controversial observations."
"In future studies, place of residence should be considered in assessment of exposure to microwaves from cellular telephones, although the results in this study must be interpreted with caution due to low numbers in some of the calculations."
"Compared to sham-exposed rats, the glutathione content in the forebrain cortex of the ELF-MF-exposed rats decreased (P < 0.001), but this reverted after giving amphetamine upon ELF-MF exposure. In this group, the glutathione content was increased in the brain stem and cerebellum (P < 0.05 compared to the sham-exposed, ELM-MF-exposed, and amphetamine-treated groups). It is suggested that biogenic monoamines are involved in the reduced glutathione changes observed. The changes are not uniform in the brain regions examined."
"This study suggests that while RFEMR does not have a dramatic impact on male germ cell development, a significant genotoxic effect on epididymal spermatozoa is evident and deserves further investigation."
"To test whether this controversy might reflect differences between the cellular targets examined we exposed cultured cells derived from different tissues to an intermittent ELF-EMF (50 Hz sinusoidal, 1 mT) for 1-24h. The alkaline and neutral comet assays were used to assess ELF-EMF-induced DNA strand breaks. We could identify three responder (human fibroblasts, human melanocytes, rat granulosa cells) and three non-responder cell types (human lymphocytes, human monocytes, human skeletal muscle cells), which points to the significance of the cell system used when investigating genotoxic effects of ELF-EMF."
"Such melatonin disruption has been shown in animals, especially with exposure to electric and/or rapid on/off magnetic fields. Equivocal evidence has been obtained from controlled laboratory magnetic field exposures of volunteers, although the exposure conditions are generally atypical of neighborhood exposures. In contrast, support for the hypothesis is found in the body of studies showing magnetic field disruption of melatonin in human populations chronically exposed to both electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity distribution. Further support comes from the observation that melatonin is highly protective of oxidative damage to the human haemopoietic system. Aspects of the hypothesis are amenable to further investigation."
"There is an association between childhood leukaemia and proximity of home address at birth to high voltage power lines, and the apparent risk extends to a greater distance than would have been expected from previous studies. About 4% of children in England and Wales live within 600 m of high voltage lines at birth. If the association is causal, about 1% of childhood leukaemia in England and Wales would be attributable to these lines, though this estimate has considerable statistical uncertainty."
Electric fields in bone marrow substructures at power-line frequencies
Chiu RS, Stuchly MA, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, junij 2005
"A maximum electric field enhancement of 50% is observed. Another model of bone marrow stroma cells is implemented only in FEM using thin film approximation. The transmembrane potential (TMP) change across the gap junctions is found to range from several to over 200 microV. The two results suggest that imperceptible contact currents can produce biologically significant TMP change at least in a limited number of bone marrow stroma cells."
"Effects occurred after 16 h exposure in both cell types and after different mobile-phone modulations. The intermittent exposure showed a stronger effect in the comet assay than continuous exposure. Therefore we conclude that the induced DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects."
"It is concluded that the use of mobile phone is a health risk factor, and thus it is suggested that excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided and social awareness increased through health promotion activities, such as group discussions or public presentations and via electronic and printed media sources."
"It is remarkable that authorities play a marginal role in informing physicians. Only 4% mention having received information on "electromagnetic pollution" from such a source. It is rather remarkable that there is such a widespread contradiction between physicians' opinions and established national and international health risk assessment. With respect to the frequency with which doctors are confronted with this issue, the results demonstrate an urgent need for action."
"Selection bias tends to distort the effect estimates below unity, while analyses based on more comprehensive material gave results close to unity."
"When residential magnetic fields are evaluated, the 2 upper residential, time-weighted, average magnetic field categories showed elevated odds ratios (ORs) for all brain tumours (OR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.9-2.7 and OR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.3). Occupational exposure showed no association to exposure for any site. We found an elevated risk for residential exposure to magnetic fields and brain tumours, although the risk was not significant, and no clear exposure-response pattern was found. The findings for the occupational exposure groups showed an inverse association."
Hearing level and intensive use of mobile phones
Garcia Callejo FJ et al, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp, maj 2005
"Frequent management of mobile phones in a middle period of time allows to detect a mild hearing loss, but the cause of this disorder keeps unclear."
"In conclusion, 50 Hz magnetic field and 915 MHz microwaves under specified conditions of exposure induced comparable responses in lymphocytes from healthy and hypersensitive donors that were similar but not identical to stress response induced by heat shock."
"The growth of plants exposed for 2 h to the 23 V/m electric field of 900 MHz significantly decreased in comparison with the control, while an electric field of the same strength but at 400 MHz did not have such effect. A modulated field at 900 MHz strongly inhibited the growth, while at 400 MHz modulation did not influence the growth significantly. At both frequencies a longer exposure mostly decreased the growth and the highest electric field (390 V/m) strongly inhibited the growth. Exposure of plants to lower field strength (10 V/m) for 14 h caused significant decrease at 400 and 1900 MHz while 900 MHz did not influence the growth. Peroxidase activity in exposed plants varied, depending on the exposure characteristics. Observed changes were mostly small, except in plants exposed for 2 h to 41 V/m at 900 MHz where a significant increase (41%) was found. Our results suggest that investigated electromagnetic fields (EMFs) might influence plant growth and, to some extent, peroxidase activity. However, the effects of EMFs strongly depended on the characteristics of the field exposure."
"The weight of testes, testicular biopsy score count and the percentage of interstitial tissue to the entire testicular tissue were not significantly different in EMF group compared to the control group. However, the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the mean height of the germinal epithelium were significantly decreased in EMF group (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in serum total testosterone level in EMF group (p<0.05). Therefore, there was an insignificant decrease in plasma LH and FSH levels in EMF group compared to the control group (p>0.05)."
"The microwaves play a role of accumulation in the effect on exposed neurons, the trends in dose response relationship were found between the exposure intensity and the effects, effect of the microwave on exposed neurons should be classified as athermal effects of EMF."
"This review focuses on research examining the effects of EMFs on birds; most studies indicate that EMF exposure of birds generally changes, but not always consistently in effect or in direction, their behavior, reproductive success, growth and development, physiology and endocrinology, and oxidative stress under EMF conditions."
"MMW, in the 52-78 GHz frequency range, act as stress factor on the cells that survive in a non-steady low-mitogenetic metabolic state."
"There is no effect on redness on the eyes and vision disturbance, but some statistical evidences are found that MP may cause blurring of vision, secretion of the eyes, inflammation in the eyes and lacrimation of the eyes. These results suggest an awareness of the symptoms and sensations."
"This finding supports our previous observation that pulse modulation of RF EMF is necessary to induce changes in the waking and sleep EEG, and substantiates the notion that pulse modulation is crucial for RF EMF-induced alterations in brain physiology."
"This study concludes that, at least in the present developmental level of communication technologies, intensive mobile phone use seems to be part of the same health-related lifestyle as health compromising behaviours."
"It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects."
Effects of static magnetic fields at the cellular level
Miyakoshi J, Prog Biophys Mol Biol, februar 2005
"This method has been used to confirm that a static magnetic field alone has no such effect. However, the frequency of micronucleus formation increases significantly when certain treatments (e.g., X-irradiation) are given prior to exposure to a 10 T static magnetic field. It has also been reported that treatment with trace amounts of ferrous ions in the cell culture medium and exposure to a static magnetic field increases DNA damage, which is detected using the comet assay. In addition, many studies have found a strong magnetic field that can induce orientation phenomena in cell culture."
Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use
Bianchi A, Phillips JG, Cyberpsychol Behav, februar 2005
"Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns."
"The Residential Sources Study was set up to investigate the sources of power frequency magnetic fields that contributed to average residential exposure estimates of 0.2 μT and above in the UK Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS). The work was carried out by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), now the Radiation Protection Division (RPD) of the Health Protection Agency (HPA), on behalf of the Leukaemia Research Fund Epidemiology and Genetics Unit at the University of York (EGU), as part of an extension of the UKCCS EMF Hypothesis - that exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (specifically power frequency magnetic fields) may play a role in the aetiology of childhood cancer."
Erythropoietic changes in rats after 2.45 GHz nonthermal irradiation
Busljeta I et al, Int J Hyg Environ Health, januar 2005
"In the applied experimental condition, RF/MW radiation might cause disturbance in red cell maturation and proliferation, and induce micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells."
"In comparison to the sham exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes revealed significant differences for the 8th and 15th experimental day. Bone marrow erythrocyte maturation and/or proliferation initiated by subthermogenic RF/MW irradiation showed temporary disturbance. Thereafter, the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow red cells was significantly increased after 15 irradiation treatments. Comparison of micronucleus frequency data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions, RF/MWirradiation initiates transitory cytogenetic effect manifested with micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells."
FM broadcasting exposure time and malignant melanoma incidence
Hallberg O, Johansson O, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine (2005), januar 2005
"The age-specific incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin appears to be following a pattern of response to an imposed environmental change in 1955. We believe that the frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting radiation at whole-body resonant frequencies is such an environmental stress."

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