Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


1997 (25 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
Magnetic fields of transmission lines and depression
Verkasalo PK et al, Am J Epidemiol, december 1997
"The adjusted mean Beck Depression Inventory scores did not differ by exposure, providing some assurance that proximity to high-voltage transmission lines is not associated with changes within the common range of depressive symptoms. However, the risk of severe depression was increased 4.7-fold (95% confidence interval 1.70-13.3) among subjects living within 100 m of a high-voltage power line. This finding was based on small numbers. The authors recommend that attempts be made to strive for a better understanding of the exposure characteristics in relation to the onset and course of depression."
"This study supports the idea that the aetiological basis of facial skin symptoms among VDT-workers includes physical as well as psychosocial factors, and that the interaction between such factors might be significant in the understanding of skin complaints among VDT workers."
"The results of this literature study demonstrate that highly similar changes exist in the skin of "screen dermatitis" patients, as regards the clinical manifestations as well as alterations in the cell populations, and in skin damaged by UV light or ionizing radiation."
Radiofrequency exposure near high-voltage lines
Vignati M, Giuliani L, Environ Health Perspect, december 1997
"This implies that radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields are present near the electric network in addition to the 50/60 Hz fields. This intensity of these RF fields is low but the intensity of currents induced in the human body by exposure to magnetic fields increases with frequency. Because scientific research has not yet clarified whether the risk is related to the value of magnetic induction or to the currents this kind of exposure produces in the human body, it is reasonable to suggest that the presence of the RF magnetic fields must be considered in the context of epidemiologic studies."
Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment
Hjollund NH et al, Reprod Toxicol, november 1997
"This is a preliminary survey of semen quality among Danish military personnel operating mobile ground-to-air missile units that use several microwave emitting radar systems. The maximal mean exposure was estimated to be 0.01 mW/cm2. The median sperm density of the military personnel was significantly low compared to the references. The difference is either due to chance, uncontrolled bias, or nonthermal effects of transitory microwaves."
"Results showed that the RFR exposure significantly increased DNA double strand breaks in brain cells of the rat, and the effect was partially blocked by treatment with naltrexone."
Mortality of plastic-ware workers exposed to radiofrequencies
Lagorio S et al, Bioelectromagnetics, oktober 1997
"This study raises interest in a possible association between exposure to RF radiation and cancer risk. However, the study power was very small, and the possible confounding effects of exposure to solvents and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) could not be ruled out. The hypothesis of an increased risk of cancer after radiofrequency exposure should be further explored by means of analytical studies characterised by adequate power and more accurate exposure assessment."
"Performance on most memory and attention measures was unrelated to exposure, but significant linear dose-response relationships were found between exposure and some psychological and mental health variables. In particular, higher time-integrated exposure was associated with poorer coding-test performance and more adverse psychiatric symptomatology. These associations were found to be independent of participants' beliefs about effects of electromagnetic fields."
"This meta-analysis tends to confirm the presence of an association between exposure to magnetic fields and leukaemia among people who reside in the vicinity of high voltage transmission electric lines of > or = 49 kV. There is consistency across studies. Measures of exposure used in the studies were either distance from the lines or calculated fields estimated from pertinent line features. The results apply to adults as well as to children."
"There were no effects seen on levels of cytoskeletal protein synthesis or of beta-actin mRNA. Morphological changes persisted following subculture for at least 7 days in the absence of further exposure. It is hypothesized that effects of exposure to an electromagnetic field at 835 MHz may be mediated via a signal transduction pathway."
"At 40 mW cm-2 there were no effects seen on cell proliferation, but alteration in cell morphology included increased cell spreading and also the appearance of actin-containing blebs at localised sites on the membrane. It is hypothesised that 835 MHz radiation at low power density may be affecting a signal transduction pathway involved in cell proliferation."
"The aim of the present study was to determine whether long-term exposure to pulse-modulated RF fields similar to those used in digital mobile telecommunications would increase the incidence of lymphoma in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice, which are moderately predisposed to develop lymphoma spontaneously. One hundred female E mu-Pim1 mice were sham-exposed and 101 were exposed for two 30-min periods per day for up to 18 months to plane-wave fields of 900 MHz with a pulse repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a pulse width of 0.6 ms. Incident power densities were 2.6-13 W/m2 and specific absorption rates were 0.008-4.2 W/kg, averaging 0.13-1.4 W/kg. Lymphoma risk was found to be significantly higher in the exposed mice than in the controls (OR = 2.4. P = 0.006, 95% CI = 1.3-4.5). Follicular lymphomas were the major contributor to the increased tumor incidence. Thus long-term intermittent exposure to RF fields can enhance the probability that mice carrying a lymphomagenic oncogene will develop lymphomas. We suggest that such genetically cancer-prone mice provide an experimental system for more detailed assessment of dose-response relationships for risk of cancer after RF-field exposure."
"Compared to office staff, rate ratios (RR) were higher for respiratory cancers for field staff [(RR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.0-5.0) linecrew (RR = 2.2 95% CI, 1.5-3.1), and power plant occupations (RR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.6-3.6)]. Nonmanagement occupations had rate ratios for motor vehicle injuries and all types of injuries, within a range of 2.5-4.7, with all lower CIs > 1.0. The healthy worker effect is an important factor in explaining the difference between SMR and internal cohort analyses results. The SMR results indicate that this workforce has lower rates for overall mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer and nonintentional injury. A consistent finding in the internal cohort analyses that merits further research was higher mortality rates for respiratory cancer and injuries among nonoffice staff."
A correction was published in a subsequent issue of the journal, stating that there was actually a significant increase in micronucleus formation in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells after chronic exposure to the radiofrequency radiation.
"Three men were accidentally exposed to high levels of ultrahigh frequency radiofrequency radiation (785 MHz mean frequency) while working on a television mast. They experienced an immediate sensation of intense heating of the parts of the body in the electromagnetic field followed by a variety of symptoms and signs which included pain, headache, numbness, and parasthesiae, malaise, diarrhoea, and skin erythema. The most notable problem was that of acute then chronic headache involving the part of the head which was most exposed."
"For children exposed to more than 0.2 microT, an elevated but not significant odds ratio (OR) was observed (OR = 3.2, 95 percent confidence interval = 0.7-14.9). These figures are based on only four leukemia cases and three controls since only 1.5 percent of the study population was classified as highly exposed. Exploratory analyses revealed ORs that were not statistically significantly increased for other characteristics of the magnetic field at varying cut-points. The results are comparable with those from other studies. Although not statistically significant, they may indicate a positive association between EMF and childhood leukemia."
Ambulatory ECG monitoring in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields
Bortkiewicz A et al, J Med Eng Technol, marec 1997
"The electrocardiographic abnormalities detected in the resting and/ or 24 h ECG were significantly more frequent (p = 0.006) in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields than in non-exposed subjects (75% versus 25%). A clear tendency for a higher number of rhythm disturbances (mostly ExV) was observed in AM broadcast station workers."
"Since cumulated DNA strand breaks in brain cells can lead to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer and an excess of free radicals in cells has been suggested to be the cause of various human diseases, data from this study could have important implications for the health effects of RFR exposure."
RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice
Magras IN, Xenos TD, Bioelectromagnetics, januar 1997
"A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible infertility. The prenatal development of the newborns, however, evaluated by the crown-rump length, the body weight, and the number of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal vertebrae, was improved."
"The results were based on the separate analysis of 870 cases of leukemia, 577 brain tumors, and 1,980 female breast cancers. We estimated the risk of leukemia among those exposed to magnetic fields of > 0.2 microtesla (microT), relative to the risk among those exposed to fields of < 0.1 microT; the odds ratio was 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.9]. For distance < 50 meters relative to > or = 100 meters, the relative risk was 2.0 (95% CI = 1.4-2.9). For brain tumors and female breast cancers, the odds ratios were close to unity."
"The results are consistent with previous observations. Dose-related developmental toxicity was observed for 2ME both in the presence and absence of r.f. radiation. However, concurrent RF radiation exposure changed the shape of the dose-effect curve of 2ME. These data indicate that combined exposure effects should be considered when developing exposure guidelines and intervention strategies."
"The results are consistent with previous observations. Significant interactions were observed between 2ME and RF radiation sufficient to maintain colonic temperatures at 41 degrees C for 1 h, but no consistent interactions were seen at lower temperatures even with longer durations. These data indicate that combined exposure effects should be considered when developing both RF radiation and chemical exposure guidelines and intervention strategies."
"The risk of adult leukemia within 2 km was 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.74), and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter (p = 0.001). These findings appeared to be consistent over the periods 1974-1980, 1981-1986, and were probably largely independent of the initially reported cluster, which appeared to concern mainly a later period."
"The frequency of pathological rats is significantly increased (p < 0.0001) from 62/372 (ratio: 0.17 ± 0.02) for control rats to 244/630 (ratio: 0.39 ± 0.03) in all exposed rats. Grouping the exposed animals according to the level of specific absorbed energy (J/kg) give significant difference in all levels above 1.5 J/kg. The exposure was 915 MHz microwaves either pulse modulated (PW) at 217 Hz with 0.57 ms pulse width, at 50 Hz with 6.6 ms pulse width or continuous wave (CW). The frequency of pathological rats (0.17) among controls in the various groups is not significantly different. The frequency of pathological rats was 170/481 (0.35±0.03) among rats exposed to pulse modulated (PW) and 74/149 (0.50±0.07) among rats exposed to continuous wave exposure (CW). These results are both highly significantly different to their corresponding controls (p < 0.0001) and the frequency of pathological rats after exposure to pulsed radiation (PW) is significantly less (p < 0.002) than after exposure to continuous radiation (CW)."
"The sensitivity of the brain to this type of visual stimulation was tested by means of objective electrophysiological methods such as electroretinography and visual evoked potential. A higher amplitude of brain cortical responses at all frequencies of stimulation was found when comparing patients with the control subjects, whereas no differences in retinal responses were revealed."

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