Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


1998 (22 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
Case-control study on risk factors for testicular cancer
Hardell L et al, Int J Oncol, december 1998
"Somewhat increased risks were found for amateur radio operators (OR 2.2; CI 0.7-6.6), work with radar equipment (OR 2.0; CI 0.3-14.2) and engineers in electronics and telecommunication industry (OR 2.3; CI 0.8-6.7) based on few exposed subjects, however. Video display unit work gave OR 1.5; CI 0.98-2.3 and for exposure 480 working days (median number) the risk increased further to OR 1.8; CI 1.1-3.2. Because of low numbers of exposed subjects in some calculations some of these results might be spurious and need to be further studied."
"Cytologic investigations designed to study bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of albino rats irradiated by an electromagnetic field, 2375, 2450, and 3000 MEGS, revealed structural and functional changes in populations of megakaryocytes, immunocompetent cells as well as of undifferentiated cells, and of other types of cells that are dependent on the intensity of irradiation and permit establishing the probability-threshold levels of exposure taking account of reactions of perception and physiologic adaptation together with compensatory and regenerative processes and the injury sustained. It is shown that changes in bone marrow cells differentiation and reproduction rather than integral shifts in the peripheral blood that acquire the utmost significance. Subjected to a particular scrutiny in the paper are blast cells, which cells' repopulation was noted to be getting increased in low-intensity exposure as were disturbances in their mitosis pattern."
"Immunoglobulin concentrations and T-lymphocyte subsets in workers of TV re-transmission and satellite communication centres were assessed. An increase in IgG and IgA concentrations, an increased count of lymphocytes and T8 lymphocytes, an decreased count of NK cells and a lower value of T-helper/T-suppressor ratio were found. Neither disorders in immunoglobulin concentrations nor in the count of T8 and NK cells had any clinical implications."
"More precisely, our results demonstrate that aspects of the induced but not the evoked brain activity during PEMF exposure can be different from those not influenced by PEMF radiation. This effect appears in higher frequency bands when subjects process task-relevant target stimuli but was not present for irrelevant standard stimuli. As the induced brain activity in higher frequency bands has been proposed to be a correlate of coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, PEMF exposure may provide means to systematically alter the pattern fluctuations in neural mass activity."
"These results, consistent with the literature, add to the evidence that the developmental toxicity of RF radiation (combined or alone) is associated with colonic temperature, not with SAR."
"Occupational exposure to radiofrequency EMF can result in changes of the diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate with lowering of their amplitudes and a shift of the acrophase. The clinical relevance of the present finding needs to be investigated in further studies."
"A twofold increase in mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a tenfold increase in mortality from electrical accidents were seen on the basis of 14 and 10 deaths, respectively, the former increasing with time since first employment in a utility company. The excess mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis seems to be associated with above-average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields and may be due to repeated episodes with electric shocks."
"Whereas subjects' performance did not differ between the EMF exposure conditions, SP parameters were influenced by EMF in the VMT: EMF exposure effected a significant decrease of SPs at central and temporo-parieto-occipital brain regions, but not at the frontal one."
"For calculated magnetic field levels > or = 0.2 microtesla (microT) closest in times before diagnosis, we estimated the relative risk to be 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.5] for women and 2.1 (95% CI = 0.3-14.1) for men. Women younger than 50 years of age at diagnosis had a relative risk of 1.8 (95% CI = 0.7-4.3). For women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, the relative risk was estimated at 1.6 (95% CI = 0.6-4.1), using the exposure cutoff point > or = 0.1 microT. Among estrogen receptor-positive women younger than 50 years at diagnosis, the relative risk increased to 7.4 (95% CI = 1.0-178.1)."
"Quite similar patterns and amplitudes of induction of these proteins were evidenced after either ionizing radiation or magnetic field exposure. No synergism after both treatments was observed. These findings suggest that magnetic fields explored in the present study may be considered as an insult at the cellular level."
"Therefore, we suggest that MFs, rather than producing biological effects by a new pathway or mechanism of interaction, exert their effect(s) by interacting with already functioning reactions or pathways. If correct, the question of an MF's mechanism of interaction refocuses on how weak fields might enhance or depress a molecular reaction in progress, rather than on finding a new transduction pathway."
"Study of mobile phone users showed a statistically significant association between calling time/number of calls per day and the prevalence of warmth behind/around the ear, headaches, and fatigue."
"An increase in norepinephrine levels occurred in the pineal gland of rats exposed to the higher field strength. The major changes in the brain involved the opioid system in frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. From the present findings it may be hypothesized that EMF may cause alteration of some brain functions."
"During the probe trial, magnetic field-exposed animals spent significantly less time in the quadrant that contained the platform, and their swim patterns were different from those of the controls. These results indicate that magnetic field exposure causes a deficit in spatial "reference" memory in the rat. Rats subjected to magnetic field exposure probably used a different behavioral strategy in learning the maze."
"Modest reductions in the mean 6-OHMS levels occurred after RCMS exposures during work. The greatest reductions occurred when RCMS exposures both at work and at home were combined; therefore the effects of temporally stable magnetic fields may be integrated over a large portion of the day. Results from this study provide evidence that temporally stable magnetic field exposures are associated with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion in humans."
"Pretreatment with the cholinergic agonist physostigmine before magnetic field exposure reversed the field's effect on spatial learning. Data from this experiment indicate that magnetic field-induced spatial learning deficit is caused by the effect of the field on cholinergic systems."
"B-cells rendered BTK-deficient by targeted disruption of the btk gene did not show enhanced PLC-gamma2 activation in response to EMF exposure. Introduction of the wild-type (but not a kinase domain mutant) human btk gene into BTK-deficient B-cells restored their EMF responsiveness. Thus, BTK exerts a pivotal and mandatory function in initiation of EMF-induced signaling cascades in B-cells."
"Changes in neurobehavioral function in workers exposed to high-frequency radiation can reflect its important adverse effects."
"The evidence accrued to date suggests that microwave radiation causes measurable stress to transgenic nematodes, presumably reflecting increased levels of protein damage within cells (the common signal thought to trigger hsp gene induction). The response levels observed are comparable to those observed with moderate concentrations (ppm) of metal ions such as Zn2+ and Cu2+. We conclude that this approach deserves further and more detailed investigation, but that it has already demonstrated clear biological effects of microwave radiation in terms of the activation of cellular stress responses (hsp gene induction)."
"Third, the dopamine-opiate systems of the brain appear to be involved in headaches, and low intensity electromagnetic energy exposure affects those systems. In all three lines of research, the microwave energy used was approximately the same--in frequencies, modulations, and incident energies--as those emitted by present day cellular telephones. Could the current reports of headaches be the canary in the coal mine, warning of biologically significant effects?"
"From 1992 to 1996, we obtained electromagnetic field measurements in two population-based case-control studies on childhood leukemia in the northwestern part of Germany and in Berlin. Exposure assessment comprised residential 24-hour measurements and short-term measurements. We obtained 24-hour measurements for a total of 176 cases and 414 controls. We compared subjects exposed to median 24-hour measurements of 0.2 microT or more with those exposed to lower amounts. Multivariate regression analysis revealed an odds ratio of 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.8-6.7)."
"Twenty-eight consecutive patients with symptoms allegedly caused by electricity or visual display units were odontologically investigated according to a specially designed registration form including an anamnestic interview and a clinical protocol."

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