Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih


ionizirajoče sevanje (14 od skupno 1352 raziskav)
"Results now available from these studies, which started concurrently, have shown that exposure to Sinusoidal-50 Hz Magnetic Field (S-50 Hz MF) combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation or to chronic administration of formaldehyde in drinking water induces a significantly increased incidence of malignant tumours in males and females. A second project of two large life-span carcinogenic bioassays was conducted on over 3000 Sprague Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 1.8 GHz GSM of mobile phone radio base station, alone or combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation. Early results from the experiment on 1.8 GHz GSM alone show a statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart malignant schwannoma among males exposed at the highest dose."
"We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied. The design of our study does not permit conclusions regarding causality."
"Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields."
"The combination of EMF and gamma-ray exposure resulted in a synergistic effect by triggering stress response, which increased reactive oxygen species, but the expression of hsp70 at both mRNA and protein levels remained unaltered. Data indicate that the adverse effects of gamma-rays on cellular functions are strengthened by EMF."
"These preliminary results suggested that the adaptive response can be induced in cells exposed to non-ionizing radiation. A similar phenomenon has been reported in cells as well as in animals exposed to ionizing radiation in several earlier studies. However, induction of adaptive response was not observed in the remaining donor (i.e., non-responder). The incidence of micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of mitomycin C was not significantly different between the cells that were pre-exposed and unexposed to 900 MHz RF radiation. Thus the overall data indicated the existence of heterogeneity in the induction of an adaptive response between individuals exposed to RF radiation and showed that the less time-consuming micronucleus assay can be used to determine whether an individual is a responder or non-responder."
"We conclude that, although the 1.95 GHz signal (UMTS modulated) does not exacerbate the yield of aberrant cells caused by ionizing radiation, the overall burden of X-ray-induced chromosomal damage per cell in first-mitosis lymphocytes may be enhanced at 2.0 W/kg SAR. Hence the SAR may either influence the repair of X-ray-induced DNA breaks or alter the cell death pathways of the damage response."
Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours
Hardell L et al, Eur J Cancer Prev, december 2001
"Results are presented for the whole study group, as given here, and for malignant and benign tumours separately. For workers in the chemical industry the odds ratio (OR) was 4.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-13.4 and laboratory workers OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.16-8.85. Radiotherapy of the head and neck region gave OR 3.61, 95% CI 0.65-19.9. Medical diagnostic X-ray of the same area yielded OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58. Work as a physician gave OR 6.00, 95% CI 0.62-57.7. All three cases had worked with fluoroscopy. Ipsilateral (same side) use of a cellular telephone increased the risk of tumours in the temporal, temporoparietal and occipital areas, with OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.97-6.05 (i.e. the anatomical areas with highest exposure to microwaves from a mobile phone)."
"A positive correlation between the total number of chromosome aberrations and cumulative 6-years dosage was also found. The data emphasized the dangerous effects of prolonged exposure to both types of radiation and indicated that chromosomal aberration analysis should be obligatory for individuals working at radio-relay stations."
"Exposure to ionizing radiation, work in laboratories, and work in the chemical industry increased the risk of brain tumors. Use of a cellular telephone was associated with an increased risk in the anatomic area with highest exposure."
"Quite similar patterns and amplitudes of induction of these proteins were evidenced after either ionizing radiation or magnetic field exposure. No synergism after both treatments was observed. These findings suggest that magnetic fields explored in the present study may be considered as an insult at the cellular level."
"The results of this literature study demonstrate that highly similar changes exist in the skin of "screen dermatitis" patients, as regards the clinical manifestations as well as alterations in the cell populations, and in skin damaged by UV light or ionizing radiation."
"Possible outcomes considered included 1) blood count changes, 2) evidence of somatic mutation, 3) impairment of reproductive outcomes, especially increased spontaneous abortion, and 4) increase in cancer incidence and mortality, especially of the hematopoietic system, brain, and breast. The author presents evidence that sufficient microwave exposures are associated with all four of these outcomes, concluding that the possible effects and their timings with respect to exposure are qualitatively similar to those on ionizing radiation. A prudent course of action would be to provide more protection for those exposed than required by present regulations. No systematic effort to include negative studies is made; thus this review has a positive reporting bias."
"Immediately after square modulated (16 Hz) 2450 MHz microwave irradiation at 1 mW/cm2 power densities, we observed a decreased activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase on the lateral membrane regions. The X-ray irradiation (1 Gy) induced a similar decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity which was reversible within 24 hours. "5 Gy" doses resulted in a decrease of enzyme activities on both apical and lateral membrane areas persisting up to 24 hours following irradiation."
"The comparison of frequencies of size distribution of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of humans exposed to each of these three mutagens showed that X-rays and microwaves were preferentially clastogens while vinyl chloride monomer showed aneugenic activity as well. Microwaves possess some mutagenic characteristics typical of chemical mutagens."

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