počutje / vedenje (166 od skupno 1242 raziskav)
"Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behavior. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bcl2 showed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bcl2 were increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death. Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats."
"Although this study has some limitations, it leads us to this conclusion that higher-than-ever levels of maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields could be linked to offspring speech problems."
"In summary, our results strongly suggest that exposing the brain to RF-EMF can decrease the number of SVs and dopaminergic neurons in the striatum. These primary changes impair the recovery of locomotor activities following MPTP damage to the striatum."
"Our investigation has demonstrated the adverse consequences of 2.4-2.48 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of Wi-Fi router devices on divided attention levels of female university students that should be mentioned as a technological risk factor and taken into account by healthcare organizations."
"High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF."
"Although results of MWM test revealed that Wi-Fi modem EMF caused impairment in spatial learning in rats exposed to EMF but physical activity could reduce negative effect of EMF in pregnant rat's offspring who exposed during pregnancy but performed swimming. In addition, results of open-field test showed that litter's motor function in EMF group significantly declined in comparison with physical activity and combined 2.4GHZ EMF and physical activity groups. According to our findings, it can be concluded that execution physical activity individually or along with wave-exposed pregnancy can significantly progressive effect on offspring' cognitive and motor functions."
"Exposure to EMR induced significant changes in amino acid neurotransmitters in the studied brain areas of juvenile and young adult rats, being more prominent in juvenile animals. It could be concluded that the alterations in amino acid neurotransmitters induced by EMR exposure of juvenile and young adult rats may underlie many of the neurological effects reported after EMR exposure including cognitive and memory impairment and sleep disorders. Some of these effects may persist for some time after stopping exposure."
A significant amount of electromagnetic field/
electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available
that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a
study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania
Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA)
has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges. It is regularly added to, freely accessible online and designed to allow data to be easily retrieved, sorted and analyzed.
"The first phase of our study showed increased frequencies of adverse health effects in MRI workers. In this study the rates of self-reported symptoms such as a headache, sleep problems, myalgia, palpitation, fatigue, concentration problems, attention problems, nervousness and backpain were possibly affected by static magnetic field. Furthermore we found that reaction time and working memory could be influenced by the movements of the body around a MRI scanner. It can be concluded that movement through a high magnetic field can also lead to some adverse cognitive effects in MRI staff."
"Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs."
"The observed average (geometric mean) magnetic field values were; bed 0.85, bedroom 1.39 mG, baby cot 0.39 mG, children’s play area 0.47 mG, and family room 0.30 mG. Our results show considerable variation in the fields to which residents are typically exposed, particularly in beds (21.83%) and bedrooms (33.33%) where the percentage of measurements greater than 4 mG was considerable. Some emissions exceeded the general public exposure levels of the ICNIRP Guidelines, with the potential for residents to be exposed above these levels. However, away from electrical appliances, the average field in all rooms was 0.30–1.39 mG. We show that simple precautions can be applied to reduce exposure to ELF-MFs in residences and thereby minimize potential risks to health and wellbeing."
"In both groups of rats irradiated as adults we have observed significant decrease of the number of dividing cells within the RMS. Exposure of juvenile rats to MWR induced only slight decrease in proliferation, however, it strikingly affected cell death even two months following irradiation. In addition, these rats displayed locomotor hyperactivity and decreased risk assessment in adulthood. Our results suggest that the long-lasting influence of radiation is manifested by affected cell survival and changes in animals' behavior."
"The study clearly indicates that exposure of rats to microwave radiation of 2.45GHz leads to detrimental changes in brain leading to lowering of learning and memory and expression of anxiety behavior in rats along with fall in brain antioxidant enzyme systems."
"We observed that 2.45 GHz MW irradiated mice showed slow learning and significantly increased number of working and reference memory errors in radial maze task. Further, 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure increases serum corticosterone level and the expression of CRH, CRH-R1, and i-NOS, while the expression of iGluRs, n-NOS, PSD-95, protein kinase Cε, protein kinase A, ERK-p-ERK, CREB, and p-CREB decreases in above mentioned hippocampal subregions in a duration dependent manner. Our findings led us to conclude that 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure induced local stress suppresses signaling mechanism(s) of hippocampal memory formation."
"The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a "possible" human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies."
"The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss, and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (<300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (>300 m). Results also showed that the mobile phone BTS antenna may have health effects on inhabitants living near the station (5300 m distances)."
"The results revealed that WiFi exposure caused a significant increase in anxiety level and affect locomotor function. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in AChE activity with a concomitant increase in AChE mRNA expression level in WiFi exposed rats when compared with control. In conclusions, these data showed that long term exposure to WiFi may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases as observed by a significant alteration on AChE gene expression and some neurobehavioral parameters associated with brain damage."
"Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk for behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention problems, in the offspring. The interpretation of these results is unclear as uncontrolled confounding may influence both maternal cell phone use and child behavioral problems."
"The number and severity of migraine headaches were correlated significantly with an increased use of mobile phones during day and Wi-Fi per week (p<0.05). The usage of fixed-line telephones had no significant relationship with the study variables (p>0.05)."
"This study suggests that increased call duration is a greater risk factor for increases in headache than any other type of adverse health effect, and that this effect can be chronic."
"Mice subjected to non-modulated microwave exposure had significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased intracellular calcium and nitric oxide levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and also had increased glucose and corticosterone levels in blood compared to control mice. These non-modulated microwave-exposed mice exhibited anxiety-like and depression-like behaviours."
"Mobile phone call duration was not significantly associated with stress, sleep, cognitive function, or depression, but was associated with the severity of headaches."
"Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose–response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness, dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects."
"We observed that, short-term as well as long-term 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure increases the oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to enhanced apoptosis in hippocampal subfield neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Present findings also suggest that learning and spatial memory deficit which increases with the increased duration of MW exposure (15 < 30 < 60 days) is correlated with a decrease in hippocampal subfield neuronal arborization and dendritic spines."
"We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002) or history of mobile phone use (months used) and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003)."
"A committee of parliamentarians from all the major political parties have released a report describing safety risks from cellphones and Wi-Fi as “a serious public health issue” that warrants firm government action to help the public use “wireless devices in a manner that protects their health and the health of their families.”"
"While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations. Average dosimetry in studies with real emissions can be reliable with increased number of field measurements, and variation in experimental outcomes due to exposure variability becomes less significant with increased number of experimental replications. We conclude that, in order for experimental findings to reflect reality, it is crucially important that exposures be performed by commercially available mobile phone handsets."
"Positive results might encourage further study of the cryptochrome hypothesis itself. However, they would indicate the need for performing a similar study, this time comparing the effects of only slight intensity changes (low field range) in order to explore the possible role of the proximity of metal structures and furniture as a confounder under the cryptochrome hypothesis."
"We found that an ELF-MF (0.1 mT, 50 Hz) exposure was capable of entraining expression of clock genes BMAL1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, and CRY2. Moreover, ELF-MF treatment induced an alteration in circadian clock gene expression previously entrained by serum shock stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that ELF-MF may be able to drive circadian physiologic processes by modulating peripheral clock gene expression."
"The Government of India's efforts in laying down regulations regarding the safety limits, manufacture, marketing, and mobile use are still in nascent stage. The need for stringent enforcement of laws for prevention of phone usage while driving and guidelines of medical regulatory bodies regarding rules and regulations of phone usage while at class or attending patients is of utmost importance."
"We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy."
"The crude odds ratio (OR) for women was 8.50 (CI 95%: 1.73-46.75), suggesting that for women environmental exposure to ELF MF is associated with an increased score on NSPS. As this is an exploratory cross-sectional study in a relatively small sample, no conclusions regarding causality can be drawn."
"The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents."
"In order to be efficient and effective, we designed and validated a fast and easy test on ants - these insects being used as a biological model - for revealing the effect of wireless equipments like mobile phones, smartphones, digital enhanced cordless telephone (DECT) phones, WiFi routers and so on. This test includes quantification of ants' locomotion under natural conditions, then in the vicinity of such wireless equipments. Observations, numerical results and statistical results allow detecting any effect of a radiating source on these living organisms."
"Review of some key studies, both recent and old (1971), reveals that the participants' symptoms were the same as those reported by people exposed to radiofrequency fields emitted by devices other than smart meters. Interestingly, the vast majority of Victorian cases did not state that they had been sufferers of electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) prior to exposure to the wireless meters, which points to the possibility that smart meters may have unique characteristics that lower people's threshold for symptom development."
"Clearly, much more work needs to be done to understand the
basic mechanisms responsible for this syndrome. However,
this report adds to the developing evidence that EHS is a real
disease, that a significant number of people suffer from EHS,
and that—beyond taking steps to reduce EMF exposure—we
have very limited knowledge of how to prevent and treat the
"Exposed mice also demonstrated decreased exploratory activity. We concluded that these results are supportive of the hypothesis of a causal link between exposure to ELF-EMF and ASD; however, replications of the study with further tests are recommended."
"The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration."
"Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible."
"The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (<300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (>300 m)."
"In humans magnetite is found in the brain, heart, liver and spleen. Humans suffer from memory dysfunctions in many cases when iron is out of balance. Anomalous concentrations of magnetite is known to be associated with a neurodegenerative disorder like Alzheimer's disease. Due to the rapid speed and accuracy of our brain, memory and its functions must be governed by quantum mechanics."
"Mobile phone use was associated with a significantly increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for headaches and migraine (1.42, 95% CI = 1.12-1.81) and skin itches (1.84, 95% CI = 1.47-2.29). Children who regularly used mobile phones were also considered to have a health status worse than it was 1 year ago."
"We conclude that RF-EMF exposure induced a shift in thermal preference towards higher temperatures. The shift in preferred temperature might result from a cold thermal sensation. The change in sleep stage distribution may involve signals from thermoreceptors in the skin. Modulation of SWS may be a protective adaptation in response to RF-EMF exposure."
"Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves. Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation are indicating extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and cerebral cortex. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning."
"RESULTS: ELF magnetic field shortens developmental time, increases viability and does not affect sex ratio of D. subobscura. No matter which developmental stage is exposed, ELF magnetic field significantly decreases locomotor activity of adult flies, but after exposure of just eclosed adults observed change lasts longer. CONCLUSIONS: Applied ELF magnetic field modifies fitness components and locomotor activity of D. subobscura. Observed effects can be attributed to the influence of magnetic field on different stages of development where the hormonal and nervous systems play important role in the control of examined parameters."
"Neurological effects are caused by changes in the nervous system. Factors that act directly or indirectly on the nervous system causing morphological, chemical, or electrical changes in the nervous system can lead to neurological effects. The final manifestation of these effects can be seen in psychological changes, e.g., memory, learning and perception. The nervous system is an electrical organ. Thus, it should not be surprising that exposure to electromagnetic fields could lead to neurological changes. Morphological, chemical, electrical, and behavioral changes have been reported in animals and cells after exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) across a range of frequencies."
"NSe could improve cognitive impairments of mice exposed to RF, the mechanism of which might involve the increasing antioxidation, decreasing free radical content and the changes of cerebra neurotransmitters."
"This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels-independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep."
"This study suggested that impairment of LTP induction and the damages of hippocampal structure, especially changes of synapses, might contribute to cognitive impairment after microwave exposure."
"We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology."
"RESULTS: The exposure to EMR resulted in significant changes in DA, NE and 5-HT in the four selected areas of adult rat brain. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure of adult rats to EMR may cause disturbances in monoamine neurotransmitters and this may underlie many of the adverse effects reported after EMR including memory, learning, and stress."
"The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested."
"We present experimental data showing that the endogenous electric currents and the corresponding functions they control can be easily varied by externally applied electric or magnetic fields of similar or even significantly smaller intensities than those generating the endogenous currents. We present two possible ways by which external EMFs like those produced by human technology can distort the physiological endogenous electric currents and the corresponding biological/physiological functions: a) By direct interference between the external and the endogenous fields and, b) By alteration of the intracellular ionic concentrations (i.e. by changing the number of electric current carriers within the cells) after irregular gating of electrosensitive ion-channels on the cell membranes. Finally, we discuss how maintenance of this delicate electromagnetic equilibrium between living organisms and their natural environment, determines health and well-being, and how its disturbance will inevitably lead sooner or later to health effects."
"Our findings suggest the possibility that high intensity and chronic exposure to ELF-MF induces an increase in corticosterone secretion, along with depression- and/or anxiety-like behavior, without enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis."
"It can be proposed that the specific temporal patterns of ELF-MF-induced motor behavior changes in 3- and 10-month-old gerbils are a consequence of age-dependent morpho-functional differences in the brain structures responsible for a control of motor behavior."
"The explanation why we did not find any correlation between the electric field strength and frequency of subjective symptoms but found a correlation between subjective symptoms and distance from base station needs further studies. Maybe new metrics of exposure assessment should be adopted for this purpose."
"Mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. We present the first experimental evidence of neuropathology due to in-utero cellular telephone radiation. Further experiments are needed in humans or non-human primates to determine the risk of exposure during pregnancy."
"Our results have implications for assessing the risks of mobile phone use such as radiofrequency field (RF) exposure and driving accidents, for studying adoption and use of other emerging technologies, for understanding the genetic architecture of the cognitive and personality traits that predict consumer behavior, and for challenging the common assumption that consumer behavior is shaped entirely by culture, media, and family environment."
"The subject demonstrated statistically reliable somatic reactions in response to exposure to subliminal EMFs under conditions that reasonably excluded a causative role for psychological processes. EMF hypersensitivity can occur as a bona fide environmentally inducible neurological syndrome."
"Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended."
"Contrary to our previous studies, in this work external antennas located far away from the subjects were connected to the cellular phones. This setup prevents any emission of RFR from the internal antenna, thus drastically reducing RFR exposure. Despite that, the results remain similar to those obtained in our previous work. These results indicate that some of the effects previously attributed to RFR can be the result of some confounders."
"This study submits the results of a four-year monitoring of a complex diagnostics of the psychophysiological indicators for 196 children aged 7 to 12 years old: 147 of them are child users of mobile communication (test group) and 49 are in the control group. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, an increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found."
"Though results from this study suggest a reduction of human standing balance with MF exposure, as well as an increase of physiological tremor amplitude within the frequency range associated with central nervous system contribution, no exposure effect appeared on other investigated parameters (e.g., EEG or voluntary motor control). These results suggest that 1 h of 60 Hz, 1,800 uT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the cortical electrical activity."
"Our results suggest that repeated exposure to ELF-MF leads to prolonged locomotor stimulation and long-term expression of FRA in the striatal complex of the mice via stimulation of dopaminergic D1 receptor."
"These results confirm previous findings of mobile phone-like emissions affecting the EEG during non-REM sleep. Importantly, this low-level effect was also shown to be sensitive to individual variability. Furthermore, this indicates that previous negative results are not strong evidence for a lack of an effect and, given the far-reaching implications of mobile phone research, we may need to rethink the interpretation of results and the manner in which research is conducted in this field."