Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

2007 (41 od skupno 1243 raziskav)
"Present results suggest that EMF exposure may interfere with normal process of folliculogenesis."
"Our results showed that non-thermal exposure to investigated radiofrequency fields induced oxidative stress in duckweed as well as unspecific stress responses, especially of antioxidative enzymes. However, the observed effects markedly depended on the field frequencies applied as well as on other exposure parameters (strength, modulation and exposure time). Enhanced lipid peroxidation and H(2)O(2) content accompanied by diminished antioxidative enzymes activity caused by exposure to investigated EMFs, especially at 900 MHz, indicate that oxidative stress could partly be due to changed activities of antioxidative enzymes."
"This negative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild."
"In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02)."
"Transcript accumulation was maximal at normal Ca(2+) levels and was depressed at higher Ca(2+), especially for those encoding calcium-binding proteins. Removal of Ca(2+) (by addition of chelating agents or Ca(2+) channel blocker) led to total suppression of mRNA accumulation. Finally, 30 min after the electromagnetic treatment, ATP concentration and adenylate energy charge were transiently decreased, while transcript accumulation was totally prevented by application of the uncoupling reagent, CCCP. These responses occur very soon after exposure, strongly suggesting that they are the direct consequence of application of radio-frequency fields and their similarities to wound responses strongly suggests that this radiation is perceived by plants as an injurious stimulus."
"Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for screening potential electromagnetic-reaction protein markers. HSP70 and hnRNP K are involved in the stress reaction of HLECs exposed to microwaves. These cell responses are nonthermal effects of the electromagnetic field."
"Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation."
Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats
Yan JG et al, Fertil Steril, oktober 2007
"These results suggest that carrying cell phones near reproductive organs could negatively affect male fertility."
"RF and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were associated with increased E1G excretion among postmenopausal women. Women with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion may represent a sensitive subgroup."
"No significant increased risk for glioma, meningioma or neuroma was observed among cell phone users participating in Interphone. The statistical power of the study is limited, however. Our results, suggesting the possibility of an increased risk among the heaviest users, therefore need to be verified in the international INTERPHONE analyses."
"This large case-control study identified a significantly increased risk of leukemia among the offspring of men likely to have been occupationally exposed to EMF, with differing associations between males and females. Increased risks of chondrosarcoma and renal carcinoma were also seen, although based on smaller numbers. Further detailed investigations in this area are required to understand this association."
"No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Five studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased OR especially for ipsilateral exposure. Highest OR = 5.4, 95 % CI = 3.0-9.6 was calculated for high-grade glioma and ipsilateral exposure in one study. Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for > 10 years give a consistent pattern of an increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma, most pronounced for high-grade glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure."
"It was found that the MDA level increased (P<0.05), GSH level and CAT enzyme activity decreased (P<0.05), and vitamins A, E and D(3) levels did not change (P>0.05) in the brain tissues of EMF-exposed guinea pigs. In addition, MDA, vitamins A, D(3) and E levels, and CAT enzyme activity increased (P<0.05), and GSH level decreased (P<0.05) in the blood of EMF-exposed guinea pigs. It was concluded that electromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone might produce oxidative stress in brain tissue of guinea pigs. However, more studies are needed to demonstrate whether these effects are harmful or/and affect the neural functions."
"Although recognizing that this study has limitations, the results raise the possibility that prolonged residence close to high-voltage power lines, especially early in life, may increase the risk of the development of MPD and LPD later."
"The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 4.67) among children who resided within 2 km of the nearest AM radio transmitter as compared with those resided more than 20 km from it. For total RFR exposure from all transmitters, odds ratios for lymphocytic leukemia were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR."
"We found that the first step is mediated in the plasma membrane by NADH oxidase, which rapidly generates ROS (reactive oxygen species). These ROS then directly stimulate MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and allow them to cleave and release Hb-EGF [heparin-binding EGF (epidermal growth factor)]. This secreted factor activates the EGF receptor, which in turn further activates the ERK cascade. Thus this study demonstrates for the first time a detailed molecular mechanism by which electromagnetic irradiation from mobile phones induces the activation of the ERK cascade and thereby induces transcription and other cellular processes."
"It is concluded that oxidative endometrial damage plays an important role in the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial impairment and the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins E and C reduces the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial damage both at biochemical and histological levels."
"Since operation in the near-field of these devices cannot be excluded, dosimetric evaluation is the most straightforward technique for testing compliance when low-power exclusions are not applicable. The suitability of the suggested methods is demonstrated through the examination of five classes of short-range transmitters."
"The study indicates that during laboratory exposure to 884 MHz wireless signals, components of sleep, believed to be important for recovery from daily wear and tear, are adversely affected. Moreover, participants that otherwise have no self-reported symptoms related to mobile phone use, appear to have more headaches during actual radiofrequency exposure as compared to sham exposure. However, subjects were not able to detect the true exposure status more often than would have been expected by statistical chance alone."
"For all studied phone types OR for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours, increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV."
"Instead, the microwave pulse, upon absorption by soft tissues in the head, launches a thermoelastic wave of acoustic pressure that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear. There, it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal hearing."
Health response of two communities to military antennae in Cyprus
Preece AW et al, Occup Environ Med, junij 2007
"It was clear that even this close (1-3 km) to powerful transmissions, the dominant sources of radiofrequency fields were cell phone and national broadcast systems. There was no excess of cancer, birth defects or obstetric problems. There was heightened risk perception and a considerable excess of migraine, headache and dizziness, which appears to share a gradient with radiofrequency exposure."
"ODC activity in rat primary astrocytes was decreased statistically significantly (p values from 0.003 to <0.001) and consistently in all experiments performed at two exposure levels (1.5 and 6.0 W/kg) and using GSM modulated or CW radiation. In the secondary cell lines, ODC activity was generally not affected. ODC activity was affected by RF radiation in rat primary neural cells, but the secondary cells used in this study showed essentially no response to similar RF radiation. In contrast to some previous studies, no differences between the modulated and continuous wave signals were detected. Further studies with primary astrocytes are warranted to confirm the present findings and to explore the mechanisms of the effects."
"Post-exposure, sleep latency after talk mode was markedly and significantly delayed beyond listen and sham modes. This condition effect over time was also quite evident in 1-4Hz EEG frontal power, which is a frequency range particularly sensitive to sleep onset. It is possible that 2, 8, 217Hz modulation may differentially affect sleep onset."
"A significant association was found between cordless phone use and difficulties in concentration (P < .05) or attention disorders (P < .05). However, after correction of the gender role, these differences were not significant. No association was found between mobile phone use and the above-mentioned symptoms. No significantly higher prevalence of self-reported symptoms was found in individuals who had used mobile phones, video display terminals or cordless phones more frequently than others."
"In line with our previous studies, we observed that the exposure to EMF had modest effects on brain oscillatory responses in the alpha frequency range ( approximately 8-12 Hz) and had no effects on the behavioural measures. The effects on the EEG were, however, varying, unsystematic and inconsistent with previous reports. We conclude that the effects of EMF on brain oscillatory responses may be subtle, variable and difficult to replicate for unknown reasons."
"Previously, we investigated the effect of electric field of various strengths on insulin chain-B under static and oscillating conditions. This paper expands on our previous work by subjecting the peptide to an oscillating electric field of different frequencies. We observed a frequency-dependent effect where the application of lower-frequency oscillating fields resulted in static-field-like behavior of the peptide, whereby the intrinsic flexibility of the protein is constrained, thus potentially restricting access to the protein's active state."
"For more than 10 years of mobile phone use reported on the side of the head where the tumor was located, an increased OR of borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.01, 1.92, p trend 0.04) was found, whereas similar use on the opposite side of the head resulted in an OR of 0.98 (95% CI 0.71, 1.37). Although our results overall do not indicate an increased risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use, the possible risk in the most heavily exposed part of the brain with long-term use needs to be explored further before firm conclusions can be drawn."
[Effects of different dose microwave radiation on protein components of cultured rabbit lens]
Wang KJ et al, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi, april 2007
"Microwave radiation higher than 1.00 mW/cm(2) can affect the proportion of WSP and USP in cultured rabbit lens, and cause changes of lens transparency and refractive power, which leads to lens opacity."
"The results of this stakeholder investigation found convincing evidence that there was a small increase in risk of childhood leukaemia for those living in powerfrequency magnetic fields above 0.4 microTesla. It left open unresolved correlations between powerfrequency EMFs and other conditions, such as miscarriage, depression, breast cancer, adult leukaemia, ALS and brain cancer."
"The exposure to the user, particularly if the antenna of the client card were placed against his or her body, would require different measurement techniques beyond the scope of this study. In all cases, the measured Wi-Fi signal levels were very far below international exposure limits (IEEE C95.1-2005 and ICNIRP) and in nearly all cases far below other RF signals in the same environments. An discusses technical aspects of the IEEE 802.11 standard on which WLANs operate that are relevant to determining the levels of RF energy exposure from WLANs. Important limiting factors are the low operating power of client cards and access points, and the low duty cycle of transmission that normally characterizes their operation."
Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations
Abdel-Rassoul G et al, Neurotoxicology, marec 2007
"Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended."
"Electrosensitive patients showed reduced intracortical facilitation as compared to both control groups, while motor thresholds and intracortical inhibition were unaffected. This pilot study gives additional evidence that altered central nervous system function may account for symptom manifestation in subjectively electrosensitive patients as has been postulated for several chronic multisymptom illnesses sharing a similar clustering of symptoms."
"High-voltage (HV) sources, including the HV overhead power lines that are the focus of public concern, accounted for 23% of the exposures above 0.2 microT, and 43% of those above 0.4 microT. Public health interest has focused on the consideration of precautionary measures that would reduce exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Our study provides a basis for considering the options for exposure mitigation in the UK. For instance, in elevated-exposure homes where net currents are higher than usual, if it is possible to reduce the net currents, then the exposure could be reduced for a sizeable proportion of these homes."
Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields
Cech R et al, Phys Med Biol, februar 2007
"It could be shown that the basic restriction (ICNIRP) is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary."
"More children in developing countries like Iran live close to very high voltage lines, and they experience relatively more harmful effects from the Magnetic Fields, in comparison with children in developed countries. Residence near very high voltage overhead power lines, in distances < or = 500 meters, and Magnetic Fields >0.45 microT, should be considered a risk factor for the pathogenesis of acute leukaemias in children."
"An iteration equation is suggested that uses only a few model parameters and describes basic regularities observed in cancer onset. In the model context, relatively small chronic variations in the intracellular content of free radicals may markedly affect the probability of a cell to become a cancer cell. On the other hand, magnetic nanoparticles are shown to be an endogenous source of chronic magnetic exposure that increases the local concentration of free radicals. An enhanced level of leukaemia in early childhood is assumed to originate from magnetic nanoparticles located in hematopoietic stem cells."
"DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 59 studies, 12 (20%) were funded exclusively by the telecommunications industry, 11 (19%) were funded by public agencies or charities, 14 (24%) had mixed funding (including industry), and in 22 (37%) the source of funding was not reported. Studies funded exclusively by industry reported the largest number of outcomes, but were least likely to report a statistically significant result: The odds ratio was 0.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.78), compared with studies funded by public agencies or charities. This finding was not materially altered in analyses adjusted for the number of outcomes reported, study quality, and other factors. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of results from studies of health effects of radiofrequency radiation should take sponsorship into account."
"In this review, a general overview is given about oxidative stress, as well as experimental studies are reviewed as they are related to changes in oxidant and antioxidant content after ELF-EMF exposure inducing different biological effects. Finally, we conclude from our review that modulations on the oxidant and antioxidant level through ELF-EMF exposure can play a causal role in cancer development."
"The results of this study suggest that mobile telephone radiation leads to oxidative stress in corneal and lens tissues and that antioxidants such as vitamin C can help to prevent these effects."
"Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of cells constituting an egg chamber (follicle cells, nurse cells and the oocyte) and in all stages of the early and mid-oogenesis, from germarium to stage 10, during which programmed cell death does not physiologically occur. Germarium and stages 7-8 were found to be the most sensitive developmental stages also in response to electromagnetic stress induced by the GSM and DCS fields and, moreover, germarium was found to be even more sensitive than stages 7-8."

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