Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

Alzheimerjeva bolezen (18 od skupno 1240 raziskav)
Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease
Zhang X et al, Exp Ther Med, oktober 2016
"Since there are widespread concerns regarding the deleterious effects of the exposure to microwaves on human tissues and the subsequent potential threat of carcinogenesis, we can conclude that the current exposure to microwaves during the use of cell phones is not safe for long-term exposure, despite the current scientific opinion."
"There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the range of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem illnesses - works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention."
Experimental model for ELF-EMF exposure: Concern for human health
D'Angelo C et al, Saudi J Biol Sci, januar 2015
"Since, varying the parameters of EMFs different effects may be observed, we have studied MCP-1 expression in HaCaT, SH-SY5Y, THP-1 and K562 exposed to a sinusoidal EMF at 50 Hz frequency with a flux density of 1 mT (rms). Our preliminary results showed that EMF-exposure differently modifies the expression of MCP-1 in different cell types. Thus, the MCP-1 expression needs to be better determined, with additional studies, with different parameters and times of exposure to ELF-EMF."
"Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT activity and a rise in O2(-) levels. Together these studies support the further evaluation of ELF-EMF exposure in cellular and in vivo preclinical models to define mechanisms potentially impacted in humans."
"Rats in two experimental groups were exposed to 100- and 500-μT ELF-MFs (50 Hz) for 2 h/day for 10 months, which are the generally accepted safety standards for public and occupational exposures. The same procedures were applied to the rats in the sham group, but with the generator turned off. The results of this study showed that neither ELF-MFs used in this study altered BAP level significantly (p>0.05). However, PC and MDA levels were increased by the exposure to 100- and 500-μT ELF-MFs (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, both PC and MDA levels were altered by long-term exposure to either 100 or 500 μT ELF-MF. However, many further and more comprehensive studies will be required to elucidate the interaction mechanisms between ELF-MFs exposure and living organisms."
"The few studies that specifically have investigated NDDs or NDD relevant end-points show that effects of exposure are either lacking or indicating positive effects on neuronal viability and differentiation. In both immune and NDD relevant studies, experiments with realistic long-term exposures are lacking. Importantly, consequences of a possible long-lasting mild oxidative stress are thus not investigated. In summary, the existing experimental studies are not adequate in answering if there is a causal relationship between MF-exposure and AD, as suggested in epidemiological studies."
"RESULTS: Level of EMF exposure was not significantly associated with dementia or Alzheimer's disease. However, in stratified analyses, medium and high levels of EMF exposure were associated with increased dementia risk compared with low level in cases with onset by age 75 years (odds ratio: 1.94, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.65 for medium, odds ratio: 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.65 for high) and in participants with manual occupations (odds ratio: 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.09 for medium, odds ratio: 1.75, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-3.05 for high). Results with 42 twin pairs discordant for dementia did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational EMF exposure appears relevant primarily to dementia with an earlier onset and among former manual workers."
"The object of this work was to review recent trends in public health in Sweden. Data on different adverse health indicators were collected from official Swedish registries. We found that population health generally improved during the early 1990s but suddenly started to deteriorate from 1997 onwards. This quite dramatic change is not likely to be explained only by improved diagnostics but physical causes need immediately to be searched for. A connection with the increasing exposure of the population to GHz radiation from mobile phones, base stations and other communication technologies cannot be ruled out."
"Results: The evidence indicates that long-term significant occupational exposure to ELF MF may certainly increase the risk of both Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. There is now evidence that two relevant biological processes (increased production of amyloid beta and decreased production of melatonin) are influenced by high long-term ELF MF exposure that may lead to Alzheimer's disease. There is further evidence that one of these biological processes (decreased melatonin production) may also lead to breast cancer. Finally, there is evidence that exposures to RF MF and ELF MF have similar biological consequences. Conclusion: It is important to mitigate ELF and RF MF exposures through equipment design changes and environmental placement of electrical equipment, e.g., AC/DC transformers. Further research related to these proposed and other biological processes is required."
"There was a dose-response relation with respect to years of residence in the immediate vicinity of power lines and Alzheimer's disease: Persons living at least 5 years within 50 m had an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.51), increasing to 1.78 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.96) with at least 10 years and to 2.00 (95% CI: 1.21, 3.33) with at least 15 years. The pattern was similar for senile dementia. There was little evidence for an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis."
"Available epidemiological evidence suggests an association between occupational exposure to ELF-EMF and AD. However, some limitations affecting the results from this meta-analysis should be considered. More information on relevant duration and time windows of exposure, on biological mechanisms for this potential association and on interactions between electromagnetic fields exposure and established risk factors for AD is needed."
"This review focuses on research examining the effects of EMFs on birds; most studies indicate that EMF exposure of birds generally changes, but not always consistently in effect or in direction, their behavior, reproductive success, growth and development, physiology and endocrinology, and oxidative stress under EMF conditions."
"The findings support previous observations of an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and ALS among employees occupationally exposed to ELF-MF. Further studies based on morbidity data are warranted."
"Our study gives some support to the hypothesis that EMF exposure increases the risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, and suggests that magnetic field exposure may represent a late-acting influence in the disease process. Electric shock is an unlikely explanation for the increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in "electrical and electronics work" in this study."
"The Risk Evaluation analyzes the potential human health risks of magnetic field exposure. Specifically, this document provides an evaluation of the animal, laboratory and human evidence that shows how exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields may or may not increase human health risks. The Risk Evaluation is based on the results of published research studies, with emphasis on new studies, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Working Group Report, and the results of the California EMF Program Studies."
"This study provides some support for an association between occupational magnetic-field exposure and Parkinson's disease, but the findings are novel and require replication. Associations with the other neurodegenerative diseases were inconsistent and dependent on the method of exposure assessment."
"It is concluded that for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there are relatively strong data indicating that electric utility work may be associated with an increased risk. However, EMF exposure is only one of several possible explanations to this. For Alzheimer's disease the combined data on an association with EMF are weaker than that for ALS. For suicide an overall assessment yields the conclusion that the support for an association is weak. For depressive symptoms the assessment is more complex, but the overall conclusion is nevertheless that the evidence is relatively weak. For other diseases, such as Parkinson's, there is not enough information for an assessment."
"Overall, there was an increase in risk for senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidences of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effect; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. The increased risk for senile dementia and motorneuron diseases may be associated with above-average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields."

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