Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

kri (23 od skupno 1333 raziskav)
"We aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of aluminium foil (AF) as a physical shield against the RFR from mobile phones on the blood parameters and the myocardium in rats. The effects of whole body 2100 MHz with 0.84-1.86 W/kg of SAR, 4 h/day for 30 days Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-RFR exposure for 4 h/day for 30 days on blood parameters (i.e. haemoglobin, leucocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell differential count, corticosterone, CKMB), and the histology of myocardium were investigated. Three-month-old male rats (n = 32) were studied and randomised equally in the following four groups: K1 (non-AF non-RFR control), K2 (AF non-RFR control), P1 (non-AF RFR-exposed), P2 (AF RFR-exposed). Data were analysed with level of significance of p < 0.05. In P1, lower leucocytes and neutrophils counts with high corticosterone levels were found compared with the control groups, whilst a significantly higher CKMB was observed compared with P2 (p = 0.034). Lower cardiomyocyte counts congruent to the area fraction of the non-fibrotic myocardium were observed in P1 compared with the other groups (p < 0.01)."
"The aim of this study is to explore whether long-term RFR exposure at different frequencies affects DNA damage and oxidant-antioxidant parameters in the blood and brain tissue of rats. 28 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 7). They were identified as Group 1: sham-control, Group 2: 900 MHz, Group 3: 1800 MHz, and Group 4: 2100 MHz. Experimental groups of rats were exposed to RFR 2 h/day for 6 months. The sham-control group of rats was subjected to the same experimental condition but generator was turned off. Specific absorption rates (SARs) at brain with 1 g average were calculated as 0.0845 W/kg, 0.04563 W/kg, and 0.03957, at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 2100 MHz, respectively. Additionally, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) analyses were conducted in the brain tissue samples. Results of the study showed that DNA damage and oxidative stress indicators were found higher in the RFR exposure groups than in the sham-control group. In conclusion, 900-, 1800-, and 2100-MHz RFR emitted from mobile phones may cause oxidative damage, induce increase in lipid peroxidation, and increase oxidative DNA damage formation in the frontal lobe of the rat brain tissues. Furthermore, 2100-MHz RFR may cause formation of DNA single-strand breaks."
Electromagnetic Fields of Mobile Phone Jammer Exposure on Blood Factors in Rats
Shojaeifard MB et al, J Biomed Phys Eng, december 2018
"The data from mature rats revealed that jammer usage led to a significant difference in blood factors including RBC, platelet, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and RDWCV (P≤0.05); however, the number of lymphocytes, WBC and MCVH in the blood was the same in all groups."
"The consistent association of RFR and highly elevated HL cancer risk in the four groups spread over three countries, operating different RFR equipment types and analyzed by different research protocols, suggests a cause-effect relationship between RFR and HL cancers in military/occupational settings. While complete measurements of RFR exposures were not available and rough exposure assessments from patients interviews and from partial exposure data were used instead, we have demonstrated increased HL cancers in occupational groups with relatively high RFR exposures. Our findings, combined with other studies, indicate that exposures incurred in the military settings evaluated here significantly increased the risk of HL cancers. Accordingly, the RFR military exposures in these occupations should be substantially reduced and further efforts should be undertaken to monitor and measure those exposures and to follow cohorts exposed to RFR for cancers and other health effects. Overall, the epidemiological studies on excess risk for HL and other cancers together with brain tumors in cellphone users and experimental studies on RFR and carcinogenicity make a coherent case for a cause-effect relationship and classifying RFR exposure as a human carcinogen (IARC group 1)."
"In the test group, the whole number of white blood cells, the level of hematocrit, percent of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly lower than the control group. The number of red blood cells, their average volume and the mean concentration of hemoglobin were notably higher than the controls. There was not observed a significant difference between the two groups in hemoglobin, its mean concentration, platelet count, percent of lymphocytes and neutrophils as well as serum levels of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and interferon γ."
"Life-span exposure to MF and formaldehyde induces statistically significant carcinogenic effects in male rats."
"This work shows that subjects exposed over a long period (up to 20 years) and on a daily basis to magnetic fields experienced significant changes in serum sodium, chloride, phosphorus and glucose where an effect for field-hour interaction was noted for exposures greater than 0.3uT. Our data suggest that long-term exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (exposure >0.3uT) in healthy men could induce some biological modifications of certain blood parameters, though their clinical relevance needs further investigation."
"Our results suggest that one-year chronic exposure to CDMA (849 MHz) and WCDMA (1.95 GHz) RF simultaneously at 2.0 W/kg for 45-min RF exposure periods (total, 4 W/kg) did not increase chronic illness in rats, although there were some altered parameters in the complete blood count and serum chemistry."
"These radiations induce micronuclei formation and significant increase in ROS production. Significant changes in the level of serum glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were observed in exposed group as compared with control group. It is concluded that microwave exposure can be affective at genetic level. This may be an indication of tumor promotion, which comes through the overproduction of reactive oxygen species."
"RESULTS: Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure > or = 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation."
"In conclusion, 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation caused oxidative stress in blood of rat. L-carnitine seems to have protective effects on the 2.45-GHz-induced blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical supporting antioxidant redox system although selenium has no effect on the investigated values."
"Widespread use of mobile phones has increased the human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). It is required to investigate the effect of EMFs on the biological systems. In this paper the effect of mobile phone RF (910MHz and 940 MHz) on structure and function of HbA was investigated. Oxygen affinity was measured by sodium dithionite with UV-vis spectrophotometer. Structural changes were studied by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicated that mobile phone EMFs altered oxygen affinity and tertiary structure of HbA. Furthermore, the decrease of oxygen affinity of HbA corresponded to the EMFs intensity and time of exposure."
"The calculated temperature change resulting from the RF exposure was less than one microdegree. The direction of motion changed from along the concentration gradient and the electrical field lines to motion at right angles to the concentration gradient and the electric field. The average time for the neutrophils to respond to the effect of RF radiation was about 2.5 min."
"Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation."
"Such findings are considered to be indicators of radiation effects on BM erythropoiesis consequently reflected in the PB. Rehabilitated dynamic haemopoietc equilibrium in rats by the end of experiment indicates possibility of activation adaptation process in rats to the selected experimental conditions of subchronic RF/MW exposure."
"Significant decrease in lymphoblast count was obtained at 15 and 30th experimental day (P < 0.05), whereas other examined parameters did not significantly differed in comparison to the sham-exposed controls. The findings point out at stress response in blood-forming system in rats after selected microwave exposure, which could be considered rather as sign of adaptation than malfunction."
Animal study on electromagnetic field biological potency
Trosić I et al, Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, marec 1999
"The results of peripheral blood cell response suggested a decreasing tendency in total leukocyte count and in relative lymphocyte count in the treated group. A slight increase was also observed in granulocyte count and in the absolute count of peripheral blood erythrocytes over control animals."
"Cytologic investigations designed to study bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of albino rats irradiated by an electromagnetic field, 2375, 2450, and 3000 MEGS, revealed structural and functional changes in populations of megakaryocytes, immunocompetent cells as well as of undifferentiated cells, and of other types of cells that are dependent on the intensity of irradiation and permit establishing the probability-threshold levels of exposure taking account of reactions of perception and physiologic adaptation together with compensatory and regenerative processes and the injury sustained. It is shown that changes in bone marrow cells differentiation and reproduction rather than integral shifts in the peripheral blood that acquire the utmost significance. Subjected to a particular scrutiny in the paper are blast cells, which cells' repopulation was noted to be getting increased in low-intensity exposure as were disturbances in their mitosis pattern."
"Possible outcomes considered included 1) blood count changes, 2) evidence of somatic mutation, 3) impairment of reproductive outcomes, especially increased spontaneous abortion, and 4) increase in cancer incidence and mortality, especially of the hematopoietic system, brain, and breast. The author presents evidence that sufficient microwave exposures are associated with all four of these outcomes, concluding that the possible effects and their timings with respect to exposure are qualitatively similar to those on ionizing radiation. A prudent course of action would be to provide more protection for those exposed than required by present regulations. No systematic effort to include negative studies is made; thus this review has a positive reporting bias."
"The effect of low-level, 2.45 GHz microwaves on human erythrocyte membrane was studied by measuring the induced hemolysis of the exposed erythrocytes at different power densities (0.025-10.000 mW/cm2). A significant increase of the hemoglobin loss by the microwave-exposed erythrocytes compared to controls was observed. Red blood cell count was essentially the same in irradiated and control samples while the mean cellular hemoglobin concentration decreased in the exposed samples. These observations indicate that the hemoglobin loss from the microwave-irradiated cells is due to the membrane permeabilization of the exposed erythrocytes rather than to their lysis."
Health status of personnel occupationally exposed to radiowaves
Goldoni J et al, Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, september 1993
"For that group a cross-sectional study of the differences in general health status also showed the highest rate of changes. The results indicate that long-term occupational exposure to microwaves and radiofrequencies may damage sensitive organic systems."
"The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard."
As early as in the 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the “microwave syndrome”. The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. The microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment, even though the EMF were below today’s reference value. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from EMF. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were offered.

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