Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

2001 (34 od skupno 1243 raziskav)
"Low power densities of microwave radiation (5 mW/cm2 and 10 mW/cm2) can induce irreversible damage to rabbit lens epithelial cells. This may be the non-thermal effect of microwave radiation."
Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours
Hardell L et al, Eur J Cancer Prev, december 2001
"Results are presented for the whole study group, as given here, and for malignant and benign tumours separately. For workers in the chemical industry the odds ratio (OR) was 4.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-13.4 and laboratory workers OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.16-8.85. Radiotherapy of the head and neck region gave OR 3.61, 95% CI 0.65-19.9. Medical diagnostic X-ray of the same area yielded OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58. Work as a physician gave OR 6.00, 95% CI 0.62-57.7. All three cases had worked with fluoroscopy. Ipsilateral (same side) use of a cellular telephone increased the risk of tumours in the temporal, temporoparietal and occipital areas, with OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.97-6.05 (i.e. the anatomical areas with highest exposure to microwaves from a mobile phone)."
Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and Health
Ahlbom A et al, Environ Health Perspect, december 2001
"Among all the outcomes evaluated in epidemiologic studies of EMF, childhood leukemia in relation to postnatal exposures above 0.4 microT is the one for which there is most evidence of an association. The relative risk has been estimated at 2.0 (95% confidence limit: 1.27-3.13) in a large pooled analysis. This is unlikely to be due to chance but, may be, in part, due to bias."
"By definition, normal healthy volunteers are assumed not to react to a TV/PC screen provocation. To our great surprise, this proved not to be true. The present results might lay a foundation to understand the underlying cause of so-called "screen dermatitis" with special reference to mast cells. However, blind or double-blind experiments using patients ought to be further investigated in order to find out the exact cause for the observed changes. Such causes include the effects of surrounding airborne chemicals, stress factors, etc."
"Multinucleated cells significantly increased (p < 0.01) in treated animals. The elevation of the number of nuclei per cell was time- and dose-dependent. Macrophages with two nucleoli were more common in animals treated twice or eight times. Polynucleation, that is three and more nucleoli in a single cell, was frequently observed after 13 or 22 treatments. Binucleation and multinucleation of alveolar macrophages were sensitive time- and dose-dependent morphological indicators of pulmonary stress."
"They had a higher critical fusion frequency (43 vs. 40 Hz), and a trend to increased amplitude of steady-state VEPs at stimulation frequencies of 30-70 Hz. The data indicated that the observed group of patients had a trend to hyper sympathotone, hyperresponsiveness to sensor stimulation and heightened arousal."
"We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions."
"The risk of childhood leukaemia was higher than expected within 6 km from the station (Standardized Incidence Ratio = 217; 95% Confidence Interval 99-405). Stone's test showed a significant decrease in risk with increasing distance both for male adult mortality (p-value = 0.03) and for childhood incidence (p-value = 0.04). A Score test, showed a significant decrease in risk of childhood incidence as function of the distance. The main limitations of this study are the small number of observed cases and the use of distance as a proxy for RF exposure. Further research will require a systematic campaign of electromagnetic field measurements to allow better assessment of the population exposure."
"These data do not indicate that EHS patients or control are affected by low-level 60 Hz magnetic field exposure. However, persons reporting EHS differed from the control subjects in baseline values of investigated physiological characteristics. Perhaps EHS patients have a rather distinctive physiological predisposition to sensitivity to physical and psychosocial environmental stressors."
"Lower nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was associated with more hours of daylight, older age, higher body mass index, current alcohol consumption, and current use of medications classified as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, or psychotropics. After adjustment for these factors, higher bedroom magnetic field level was associated with significantly lower urinary concentration of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin during the same night, primarily in women who used these medications and during times of the year with the fewest hours of darkness. These results suggest that exposure to nighttime residential 60-Hz magnetic fields can depress the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin."
"When either 24-hour or sleep-time exposure to magnetic field or electric field measurements was used, no exposure-effect relation was evident. However, the trend of decreasing 6-OHMS concentration with age was more pronounced for women living near the lines, as was a lower 6-OHMS concentration in women with high body mass index. Chronic residential exposure to magnetic fields from high-power lines may accentuate the decrease in melatonin secretion observed in some vulnerable subgroups of the population."
Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure
Hocking B, Westerman R, Occup Med (Lond), september 2001
"We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed."
"Paternal average extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure >0.4 microTesla was weakly associated with neuroblastoma (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-2.8), whereas maternal exposure was not. Overall, there was scant supportive evidence of strong associations between parental exposures in electromagnetic spectrum and neuroblastoma in offspring."
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and occupation in Sweden
Cano MI, Pollan M, Int Arch Occup Environ Health, avgust 2001
"The risk excess observed in telecommunication and transport workers could be explained by electromagnetic radiation exposure. We did not find a risk excess in agricultural occupations, that has been largely documented by other study groups."
Association Of Health Problems With 50 Hz Magnetic Fields In Human Adults Living Near Power Transmission Lines
Booth RJ et al, Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine, avgust 2001
"Five of the eight health variables showed a linear dose-response relationship with exposure. After adjustment for possible confounding, significantly elevated odds ratios were obtained at higher exposure levels both for asthma and for combined chronic illnesses. The results are consistent with a possible adverse effect of environmental magnetic field exposure on immune-related and other illnesses."
"Combined experiment with BP, TPA and MF did not cause further MN formation. Since initiation during MF exposure caused a significant increased MN formation, our findings suggest that MFs enhance the initiation process of BP. We think that this MF-enhanced co-carcinogenic effect is caused by an indirect "cell activation" process. The resulting genomic instability is proposed to be due to free radicals and/or to the unscheduled "switching-on" of signal transduction pathways."
"Moderately elevated risks were found for intermediate but not high levels of cumulative exposure accumulated 20 or more years ago (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.0). Associations were stronger for premenopausal women (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-2.7) in the past 10-20 years, and those with estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast tumors (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.1-4.0). No consistent dose-response patterns were observed."
"It is concluded that for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there are relatively strong data indicating that electric utility work may be associated with an increased risk. However, EMF exposure is only one of several possible explanations to this. For Alzheimer's disease the combined data on an association with EMF are weaker than that for ALS. For suicide an overall assessment yields the conclusion that the support for an association is weak. For depressive symptoms the assessment is more complex, but the overall conclusion is nevertheless that the evidence is relatively weak. For other diseases, such as Parkinson's, there is not enough information for an assessment."
"The pooled RR from studies in women was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.15), but variations between the contributing results are not easily attributable to chance (P = 0.0365). A fairly homogeneous increased risk was found for men (a pooled RR of 1.37, with 95% confidence limits of 1.11, 1.71, and homogeneity P-value = 0.1101). However, in both genders, results from individual studies are very variable and in part contradictory. The paramount methodological problem inhibiting valid conclusions about an association between EMF and breast cancer is the probable misclassification of exposure and the possible misclassification of the disease itself."
"Only 1a melatonin receptors were identified by the [125I]melatonin binding assay and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, preceding exposures to MF of 100 microT for 3, 5 and 7 days blocked the melatonin-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation in a time-dependent manner, while none of the melatonin receptor functions or GTPase and adenylyl cyclase activities were affected. Estrogen-evoked cell proliferation was not altered by MF either. Exposure to 1.2 microT MF exerted the same effects on the melatonin-signaling pathway as that to 100 microT. Thus, this is the first study to provide evidence that MF may cause uncoupling of signal transduction from melatonin receptors to adenylyl cyclase."
"Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields."
"The experiment results demonstrate that the conformation of insulin molecular has been altered by electric fields exposure for 30 minutes or by heat exposure for 50 hours. The results suggest that pulsed electric field exposure as heat exposure will after conformation of insulin molecular by breaking some hydrogen bonds and recombining another hydrogen bonds. The intercellular signal molecular may be an important target of electromagnetic fields."
Neuropsychological sequelae of 50 Hz magnetic fields
Keetley V et al, Int J Radiat Biol, junij 2001
"The other significant result occurred during performance of a trail-making task (alternating 1-A-2-B-3-C, etc.), with a decrease in performance as a result of exposure to the 50 Hz field. This task requires executive functioning with a working memory load, involving parietal spatial processing coordinated by prefrontal executive processing. In summary, the data are suggestive of detrimental effects on cognitive processes, particularly short-term learning and executive functioning. However, larger sample sizes are required to demonstrate statistically a more specific pattern of cognitive effects."
"Finally, the results of the analyses using dichotomous and continuous exposure model are combined with national exposure data to estimate the population attributable risk of childhood leukemia among children in the US. If an association exists, as many as 175-240 cases of childhood leukemia in the US may be due to magnetic field exposure."
"A positive correlation between the total number of chromosome aberrations and cumulative 6-years dosage was also found. The data emphasized the dangerous effects of prolonged exposure to both types of radiation and indicated that chromosomal aberration analysis should be obligatory for individuals working at radio-relay stations."
"The following factors were independently and significantly related to NHL as a result of the multivariate analysis: a previous hematopoietic malignancy (ORa = 11.5, 95% CI 2.4-55.4), a history of hives (ORa = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), benzene exposure > 810 days (ORa = 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-19.2), daily welding (ORa = 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.0), and activity of radio operator (ORa = 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.6)."
"These results point out that interactions in developmental toxicology, such as those of RF radiation, 2ME, and methanol that we have studied, are complex, and such interactions cannot be fully understood or predicted without more research. It is important that combined exposure effects be considered when developing both physical agent and chemical agent exposure guidelines and intervention strategies."
"A significant association was seen between childhood leukaemia and magnetic field exposure during the night (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.33-7.80). A dose-response-relationship was observed after combining the data of all German studies on magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. The evidence for an association between childhood leukaemia and magnetic field exposure in our study comes from a measure of exposure during the night."
"During 1949-1951, all states showed a peak in leukemia mortality at ages 2-4. At ages 0-1, leukemia mortality was not related to electrification levels. At ages 2-4, there was a 24% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8%-41%) increase in leukemia mortality for a 10% increase in percent of homes served by electricity. The childhood leukemia peak of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be attributable to electrification."
"Cells were harvested at selected times, and enumerated without knowledge of treatment. In the melatonin study, the experiment was repeated three times, whereas in the tamoxifen study, each experiment was repeated nine times. In the melatonin study, cell numbers per dish were significantly reduced (by 16.7%) in the melatonin treated cultures after 7 days of incubation compared to control cultures, whereas in the presence of 1.2 microT(rms), 60 Hz magnetic fields, the melatonin treated cultures had the same cell populations as the control cultures. In the tamoxifen study, tamoxifen reduced the cell growth by 18.6 and 25% on days 6 and 7, respectively, in the chamber not energized, while in 1.2 microT(rms), 60 Hz fields, tamoxifen reduced the cell growth only by 8.7 and 13.1%, respectively. These results are consistent with those reported by Harland and Liburdy. A critical element of this successful replication effort was the constructive communication established and maintained with the original investigators."
"Factors distinguishing the two systems (radio frequency emission, phone temperatures and various ergonomic factors) may be responsible for these results, as well as for a secondary finding: a statistically significant association between calling time/number of calls per day and the prevalence of warmth behind/around or on the ear, headaches and fatigue."
"The results showed that microwave induced the morphological damage in primary cultured retinal ganglion cells, VE could reduced the damage of retina ganglion cells by microwave in some extent."
"We found an elevated risk for exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices (exposure to radio sets, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.3; probable/certain exposure to mobile phones, OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2-14.5). Other sources of electromagnetic radiation such as high-voltage lines, electrical machines, complex electrical environments, visual display terminals, or radar units were not associated with uveal melanoma. This is the first study describing an association between radiofrequency radiation exposure and uveal melanoma. Several methodologic limitations prevent our results from providing clear evidence on the hypothesized association."
"The low power level microwave (10 mW/cm(2)) can induce the ultrastructural changes of rabbit lens epithelial cells, this may be the appearance of early irreversible microwave radiation injury. In regard to the pathogenic mechanism, it is necessary to perform further investigations."

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