Y (28 od skupno 1350 raziskav)
"This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF."
"This review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation."
"In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby. In addition, model studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17-24 months of MW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. To that, such metabolic changes, as overproduction of reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine formation, or ornithine decarboxylase activation under exposure to low intensity MW confirm a stress impact of this factor on living cells. We also address the issue of standards for assessment of biological effects of irradiation. It is now becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation based on physical (thermal) approach used in recommendations of current regulatory bodies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, requires urgent reevaluation."
"For today the limits were based solely on the conception of thermal mechanism of biological effects of RF/MW radiation. Meantime the latest experimental data indicate the significant metabolic changes in living cell under the low-intensive (non-thermal) EMR exposure. Among reproducible biological effects of low-intensive MWs are reactive oxygen species overproduction, heat shock proteins expression, DNA damages, apoptosis. The lack of generally accepted mechanism of biological effects of low-intensive non-ionizing radiation doesn't permit to disregard the obvious epidemiological and experimental data of its biological activity. Practical steps must be done for reasonable limitation of excessive EMR exposure, along with the implementation of new safety limits of mobile telephony devices radiation, and new technological decisions, which would take out the source of radiation from human brain."
"Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and Calcium assay, ALP staining, and Alizarin red staining were performed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs under the ELF magnetic field exposure. In these experiments, the cells were exposed to ELF for up to 23 days. The results showed that exposure to ELF magnetic field could inhibit the growth and metabolism of hMSC, but have no significant effect on differentiation of hMSCs. These results suggested that ELF magnetic field may influence the early development of hMSCs related adult cells."
"These results indicate that relative chronic exposure to cell phone microwave radiation may result in cumulative injuries that could eventually lead to clinically significant neurological damage."
"These results suggest that carrying cell phones near reproductive organs could negatively affect male fertility."
"Prenatal mobile phone radiation might lead to the damage of myelin and axon with activity of astrocytes in cerebellum of male rat offspring, which is related to the extent of radiation."
"The results showed that microwave induced the morphological damage in primary cultured retinal ganglion cells, VE could reduced the damage of retina ganglion cells by microwave in some extent."
"Result from immunocytochemistry revealed that EMF caused intensive staining for HSP27 and HSP70 in the hippocampus, especially in the pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and granular cells of dentate gyrus (DG). The gene and protein expression profiles of HSP27 and HSP70 were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data provide direct evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields elicits a stress response in the rat hippocampus."
"Our results suggest a possible association between electric transformers and power lines and the XRCC1 Ex9+16A allele in patients with childhood AL."
"DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage."
"Microwave radiation induced hLEC DNA damage after G(0)/G(1) arrest does not lead to cell apoptosis. The increased ROS observed may be associated with DNA damage. Superposed electromagnetic noise blocks microwave radiation-induced DNA damage, ROS formation, and cell cycle arrest."
"This study suggests that low power microwave radiation higher than 0.50 mW/cm2 can inhibit lens epithelial cell proliferation, and increase the expression of P27Kip1. These effects may account for the decline of lens epithelial proliferation after exposure to microwave radiation."
"A 2450 MHz microwave oven was converted into a microwave incubator. Rat kangaroo RH5 and RH16 cells were incubated in the incubator and were subcultured every 5 to 7 days. The temperature of the cell cultures in the incubator was maintained at 37 degrees C. The cells were incubated with direct microwave irradiation continuously for 50 passages and then returned to a conventional incubator and allowed to grow for another 30 passages. Cell growth rate was significantly reduced after 7 or 15 subculture passages under irradiation. Chromosome aberrations emerged after the cells had been microwave-incubated for about 20 passages. The long-term irradiation caused 0.84 chromosome breaks per cell in RH5 cell cultures and 0.10 breaks per cell in RH16 cell cultures. After the cell cultures had been returned to the conventional incubator and maintained for 30 passages, the number of chromosomes breaks was greatly reduced in both cell cultures. The number of polyploid cells was increased to 35 percent and 31 percent during the irradiation, and was significantly reduced in the conventional incubator. Many RH5 cells lost one chromosome and became 10-chromosome cells. The number of 10-chromosome cells increased during irradiation and continued to increase after being returned to the conventional incubator."
"Low power densities of microwave radiation (5 mW/cm2 and 10 mW/cm2) can induce irreversible damage to rabbit lens epithelial cells. This may be the non-thermal effect of microwave radiation."
"Low power densities microwave radiation (5 mW/cm(2) and 10 mW/cm(2)) induces damage to connexin 43 and inhibits the GJIC of rabbits LECs. These changes result in an osmotic imbalance within the lens and induce early cataract. 5 mW/cm(2) or 10 mW/cm(2) microwave radiation is cataractogenic."
"The low power level microwave (10 mW/cm(2)) can induce the ultrastructural changes of rabbit lens epithelial cells, this may be the appearance of early irreversible microwave radiation injury. In regard to the pathogenic mechanism, it is necessary to perform further investigations."
"The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless Internet usage compared with the wired Internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless Internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = -0.089, p = 0.039). We have also explored the negative effect of wireless Internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results."
"This is the first study to report that ELF-MF exposure generates oxidatively induced DNA base modifications which are mutagenic in mammalian cells, such as FapyGua, FapyAde and 8-OH-Gua, in vivo. This may explain previous studies showing DNA damage and genomic instability. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to 50-Hz MF may be potentially genotoxic. However, the intensity of ELF-MF has an important influence on the extent of DNA damage."
"In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs."
"The present results indicate that excessive exposure to whole-body microwave disorders pregnancy in terms of placental circulatory dysfunction. The data suggest the involvement of endocrine mechanisms in the decrease in placental blood flow which is induced via a detrimental effect of microwaves on PGF2 alpha and on pituitary functions such as general emotional stress."
"EMF itself did not induce NO generation, however, it enhanced LPS induced NO generation in vivo."
"Our results suggest that exposure to RF of wireless communications can induce expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 and the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in human LECs. The induction of Hsp27 and Hsp70, by a non-thermal stress, together with the activation of signal transduction pathways, provides reliable and sensitive biomarkers that could serve as the basis for improved mobile phone safety guidelines."
"Because of the increased use of modern radiofrequency devices, public concern about the possible health effects of exposure to microwave radiation has arisen in many countries. It is well established that high-power microwave radiation can induce cataracts via its thermal effects. It remains unclear whether low-power microwave radiation, especially at levels below the current exposure limits, is cataractogenic. This review summarizes studies on the biological effects of low-power microwave radiation on lens and lens epithelial cells (LECs). It has been reported that exposure affects lens transparency, alters cell proliferation and apoptosis, inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication, and induces genetic instability and stress responses in LECs. These results raise the question of whether the ambient microwave environment can induce non-thermal effects in the lens and whether such effects have potential health consequences. Further in vivo studies on the effects on the lens of exposure to low-power microwave radiation are needed."
"Our results suggested that long-term internet addiction would result in brain structural alterations, which probably contributed to chronic dysfunction in subjects with IAD. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of IAD."
"In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats."
"When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure."