1992 (14 od skupno 1243 raziskav)
"This article begins with a short review of the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of nonthermal levels of ELF electromagnetic fields on the biochemistry and activity of immune cells and then closely examines new results that suggest a role for Ca2+ in the induction of these cellular field effects. Based on these findings it is proposed that membrane-mediated Ca2+ signaling processes are involved in the mediation of field effects on the immune system."
"Time-dependent and cell density-dependent changes in the transcription of c-fos, c-jun, c-myc and protein kinase C (beta-form) have been observed and quantitated. Additionally, changes in transcript levels, assessed by slot-blot analysis, have been found to parallel the changes in gene transcription. These data suggest an important role for magnetic field exposure in altering cellular processes."
"The comparison of frequencies of size distribution of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of humans exposed to each of these three mutagens showed that X-rays and microwaves were preferentially clastogens while vinyl chloride monomer showed aneugenic activity as well. Microwaves possess some mutagenic characteristics typical of chemical mutagens."
"These magnetic and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements imply the presence of a minimum of 5 million single-domain crystals per gram for most tissues in the brain and greater than 100 million crystals per gram for pia and dura. Magnetic property data indicate the crystals are in clumps of between 50 and 100 particles. Biogenic magnetite in the human brain may account for high-field saturation effects observed in the T1 and T2 values of magnetic resonance imaging and, perhaps, for a variety of biological effects of low-frequency magnetic fields."
"In all experimental conditions, the frequency of all types of chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher than in the control samples. In the irradiated samples the presence of dicentric and ring chromosomes was established. The incidence of micronuclei was also higher in the exposed samples. The results of the structural chromosome aberration test and of the micronucleus test were comparatively analyzed. The values obtained showed a positive correlation between micronuclei and specific chromosomal aberrations (acentric fragments and dicentric chromosomes). The results of the study indicate that microwave radiation causes changes in the genome of somatic human cells and that the applied tests are equally sensitive for the detection of the genotoxicity of microwaves."
"Microwave radiation for 20 min had an effect that was comparable to that of immersion in 42 degrees C hot water for 15 min. In addition, some animals were examined on day 18 of gestation, and some of their offspring were examined at 6 weeks of age in an examination of long-term effects. Brain weight for the group exposed to microwaves for 20 min was significantly lower than for the control group, and the numerical density of the neurons in the cerebrum was higher. We concluded that microwave radiation at the dose tested mainly has a thermal effect."
"The data indicate that a significant, specific alteration
of cell-membrane ordering followed microwave exposure. This alteration was unique to
melanotic membranes and was due, at least in part, to the generation of oxygen radicals."
"At non-heating levels, CW exposure did not affect transformation. At heating levels both conventional and CW heating enhanced transformation to the same extent and correlate with the increases in incubation temperature. PW exposure enhanced transformation at non-heating levels. This finding is significant (P less than .002). At heating levels PW exposure enhanced transformation to a greater extent than did conventional or CW heating. This finding is significant at the .02 level. We conclude that PW 2450-MHz radiation acts differently on the process of lymphoblastoid transformation in vitro compared with CW 2450-MHz radiation at the same average SARs."
"The noradrenaline content in the hypothalamus was significantly reduced after microwave exposure at a power density of 10 mW.cm-2. There were no differences in the dopamine (DA) content of any region of the brain between microwave exposed rats and control rats. The dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) content, the main metabolite of DA, was significantly increased in the pons plus medulla oblongata only at a power density of 10 mW.cm-2. The DA turnover rates, the DOPAC:DA ratio, in the striatum and cerebral cortex were significantly increased only at a power density of 10 mW.cm-2. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) content in all regions of the brain of microwave exposed rats was not different from that of the control rats. The 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in the cerebral cortex of microwave exposed rats was significantly increased at power densities of 5 and 10 mW.cm-2."
"Our data indicate that pulsed microwaves at an average SAR of 0.26 W/kg, if administered after pretreatment with ophthalmic drugs, can produce significant ocular effects in the anesthetized primate."
"The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems."
"The data showed that all three subtypes of opioid receptors are involved in the microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the hippocampus. However, the microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the frontal cortex was not significantly affected by any of the drug treatments, confirming our previous conclusion that the effect of microwaves on the frontal cortex is not mediated by endogenous opioids."
"Immediately after a single exposure, an increase in the concentration of receptor was observed in the cerebral cortex, but no significant effect was observed in the hippocampus or cerebellum. No significant change in binding affinity of the receptors was observed in any of the brain-regions studied. In rats subjected to repeated exposures, no significant change in receptor concentration was found in the cerebral cortex immediately after the last exposure, which may indicate an adaptation to repeated exposures. Our data also show that handling and exposure procedures in our experiments did not significantly affect benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. Because benzodiazepine receptors in the brain are responsive to anxiety and stress, our data support the hypothesis that low-intensity microwave irradiation can be a source of stress."
"The finding of a near fourfold increase of primary malignancies in the exposed animals is provocative. These data cannot be considered as an artifact because different statistical analyses led to similar results."