Infografika o nevarnostih elektromagnetnih sevanjih

Raziskave

čebele (19 od skupno 1330 raziskav)
"These results indicate that short-term exposure to ELF EMFs, at levels that could be encountered in bee hives placed under power lines, reduced aversive learning and increased aggression levels. These behavioural changes could have wider ecological implications in terms of the ability of bees to interact with, and respond appropriately to, threats and negative environmental stimuli."
"We found that mobile phone radiation had significantly reduced the hatching ratio but not the mating success. If treated queens had successfully mated, colony development was not adversely affected. We provide evidence that mobile phone radiation may alter pupal development, once succeeded this point, no further impairment has manifested in adulthood. Our results are discussed against the background of long-lasting consequences for colony performance and the possible implication on periodic colony losses."
"We studied the effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of a Wi-Fi router on sensory olfactory excitability, food motivation, and the ability to form a conditioned reflex (PER), and its retention in short-term and long-term memory in the honeybee. The bees were placed in a Faraday cage for various periods of time (up to 24 h), with the Wi-Fi router switched on (test) or off (control). A 24-hour impact of Wi-Fi EMR had a significant inhibitory effect on food excitability and short-term memory in honeybees. By contrast, long-term memory of honeybees insignificantly increased."
Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact
Bandara P, Carpenter DO, Lancet Planet Health, december 2018
"However, public exposure regulations in most countries continue to be based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, which were established in the 1990s on the belief that only acute thermal effects are hazardous. Prevention of tissue heating by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is now proven to be ineffective in preventing biochemical and physiological interference. For example, acute non-thermal exposure has been shown to alter human brain metabolism by NIH scientists, electrical activity in the brain, and systemic immune responses. Chronic exposure has been associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and cancer risk. Laboratory studies, including large rodent studies by the US National Toxicology Program and Ramazzini Institute of Italy, confirm these biological and health effects in vivo."
"ELF EMF exposure was found to reduce learning, alter flight dynamics, reduce the success of foraging flights towards food sources, and feeding. The results suggest that 50 Hz ELF EMFs emitted from powerlines may represent a prominent environmental stressor for honey bees, with the potential to impact on their cognitive and motor abilities, which could in turn reduce their ability to pollinate crops."
"The effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cell phone tower on foraging behaviour of honey bee, Apis cerana F. was studied at Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat from December to May during 2012-13 and 2013-14 at an interval of 15 days. To quantify the effect of EMR, five treatments were placed at varying distance from the tower having different radiation level. The present study results revealed that the peak foraging behaviour of worker bees continues from March to May. The foraging behaviour of worker bees were observed maximum in colonies placed at 500m followed by 1000m, 300m and 200m and least at 100m distance from the tower. The results from the present investigation revealed that the Apis cerana colonies in close proximity to cell phones towers were most affected by the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the cell phone tower."
The Effect of Cell Phone Radiations on the Life Cycle of Honeybees
El Halabi N et al, IEEE EUROCON 2013, julij 2013
"As many other species, honeybees are becoming extinct in the world; this phenomenon is called the Colony Collapse Disorder. Many reasons have been proven to be behind this environmental disaster like climate changes, pesticides, fungal pathogens and others, in addition to radiations generated by mobile phones, especially, since in recent years wild life has been exposed to microwaves and radio frequency's radiation signals from various sources, including wireless phones. Bees have a specific organ for sensing magnetic forces, enabling them to navigate using their own compass. The claim of the research is that radiations generated by mobile phones are disturbing the life cycle of honeybees and affecting their reproduction system and honey producing. The research involves testing the behavior of honeybees away from mobile phones, with a mobile phone in its standby mode and active communication mode. The results of the experiments verified that mobile phone affect the honeybees' life system."
"This paper summarizes the effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell towers and wireless devices on the biosphere. Based on current available literature, it is justified to conclude that RF-EMF radiation exposure can change neurotransmitter functions, blood-brain barrier, morphology, electrophysiology, cellular metabolism, calcium efflux, and gene and protein expression in certain types of cells even at lower intensities. The biological consequences of such changes remain unclear. Short-term studies on the impacts of RF-EMF on frogs, honey bees, house sparrows, bats, and even humans are scarce and long-term studies are non-existent in India. Identification of the frequency, intensity, and duration of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields causing damage to the biosystem and ecosystem would evolve strategies for mitigation and would enable the proper use of wireless technologies to enjoy its immense benefits, while ensuring one’s health and that of the environment."
"Such ants having acquired a weaker olfactory or visual score and still undergoing olfactory or visual training were again submitted to electromagnetic waves. Not only did they lose all that they had memorized, but also they lost it in a few hours instead of in a few days (as under normal conditions when no longer trained). They kept no visual memory at all (instead of keeping 10% of it as they normally do). The impact of GSM 900 MHz radiation was greater on the visual memory than on the olfactory one. These communication waves may have such a disastrous impact on a wide range of insects using olfactory and/or visual memory, i.e., on bees."
Report on Possible Impacts of Communication Towers on Wildlife Including Birds and Bees
Expert Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF), India, oktober 2011
"The review of existing literature shows that the EMRs are interfering with the biological systems in more ways than one and there had already been some warning bells sounded in the case on bees (Warnke 2007; vanEngelsdorp et al.2010; Gould 1980; Sharma and Neelima R Kumar 2010) and birds, which probably heralds the seriousness of this issue and indicates the vulnerability of other species as well. Despite a few reassuring reports (Galloni et al.2005), a vast majority of published literature indicate deleterious effects of EMFs in various species. The window of frequency range and exposure time required to make measurable impacts would vary widely among species and unfortunately we do not have any such data available for most of our free-living floral and faunal species in India. There is an urgent need to focus more scientific attention to this area before it would be too late."
Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping
Favre D, Apidologie, maj 2011
"The worldwide maintenance of the honeybee has major ecological, economic, and political implications. In the present study, electromagnetic waves originating from mobile phones were tested for potential effects on honeybee behavior. Mobile phone handsets were placed in the close vicinity of honeybees. The sound made by the bees was recorded and analyzed. The audiograms and spectrograms revealed that active mobile phone handsets have a dramatic impact on the behavior of the bees, namely by inducing the worker piping signal. In natural conditions, worker piping either announces the swarming process of the bee colony or is a signal of a disturbed bee colony."
"The initial quiet period was characterized by rise in concentration of biomolecules including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, perhaps due to stimulation of body mechanism to fight the stressful condition created by the radiations. At later stages of exposure, there was a slight decline in the concentration of biomolecules probably because the body had adapted to the stimulus."
Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Clashes with Honey Bees
Sainudeen S, Int J Environ Sci, januar 2011
"The present study showed that after ten days the worker bees never returned hives in the test colonies. The massive amount of radiation produced by mobile phones and towers is actually frying the navigational skills of the honey bees and preventing them from returning back to their hives."
"Increase in the usage of electronic gadgets has led to electropollution of the environment. Honeybee behaviour and biology has been affected by electrosmog since these insects have magnetite in their bodies which helps them in navigation. There are reports of sudden disappearance of bee populations from honey-bee colonies. The reason is still not clear. We have compared the performance of honeybees in cellphone radiation exposed and unexposed colonies. A significant (p < 0.05) decline in colony strength and in the egg laying rate of the queen was observed. The behaviour of exposed foragers was negatively influenced by the exposure, there was neither honey nor pollen in the colony at the end of the experiment."
BEES, BIRDS AND MANKIND - Destroying Nature by ‘Electrosmog’
Warnke U, Effects of Wireless Communication Technologies, marec 2009
"The bio-scientist Ulrich Warnke is more familiar with nature’s electromagnetic housekeeping than most. In this paper, he shows how wise and sensitive nature was about using electrical and magnetic fields in the creation of life. But he can for this reason also convincingly criticise the present foolish and irresponsible interference in nature’s house-keeping. It is clear from his paper that the powers that be in politics, the economy and science are in the process of destroying what nature has built up over millions of years. The traces of this destruction have long been evident in our living environment. The paper shows, however, how short-sightedly we are treating not only our health and the economy, but especially also future generations’ right to life. All of the above is documented not as probabilities but based on reproducible effects. This should give pause also to those who regularly justify their actions with the argument that they are unaware of any proof of damage."
"Bee venom shows a decrease in DNA damage compared with irradiated samples. Parameters of Fpg-modified comet assay are statistically different from controls, making this assay more sensitive and suggesting that oxidative stress is a possible mechanism of DNA damage induction. Bee venom is demonstrated to have a radioprotective effect against basal and oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, bee venom is not genotoxic and does not produce oxidative damage in the low concentrations used in this study."
"In this case, significant variations in the behaviour of Apis mellifera under the influence of non-ionizing radiation were tested. The presented data set is based on earlier studies from 2005, which showed significant differences in returning, 39.7% of the non-irradiated bees came back compared to 7.3% of the irradiated ones. Standard commercial DECT telephones were used as exposition source. Concerning possible variations in behaviour an experimental setup with irradiated and non-irradiated bee hives was assembled. The main emphasis of this study was the investigation on significant changes in the foraging flight under electromagnetic radiation influence."
"In this paper, we describe a first pilot study, which explores the non-thermal influence of high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Therefore we observe the behaviour of honey bees (apis mellifera carnica) by exposing them to the radiation of DECT-phones. In this study four respectively eight bee-colonies were used as experimental group and were irradiated, whereas the same numbers of comparable bee-colonies was field-free. The observed parameters were the building behaviour of the bees within the beehive, its weight and especially the bees’ returning behaviour."
"A 16-week exposure did not affect percent honey moisture or teneral adult weight. When first exposed, colonies exhibited pronounced but transient elevations in temperature. Capped brood was normal in exposed 1-m hives but declined ( P <0.01) in 1.5-m hives by week 4, associated with higher incidence of queen loss and queen cells and colony failure. Weight gain was depressed in all exposed hives after 2 weeks, being severe in 1.5-m hives ( P <0.001 at week 5) and intermediate in 1-m hives (P = 0.05 at week 8). Effects were more pronounced the first 8 weeks than the last 8. Painted hive interiors reduced bio-effects, presumably by reducing internal current flow. Only exposed colonies propolized hive entrances, but amount and time of onset were not dose related. Treatment reversal at midseason resulted in reversal of colony behavior, manifested more with hive weight than brood. Overwinter survival of exposed groups was ≤29% compared with ≥71% among shielded ones. "

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