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"Semen quality in the adult male can be affected by a number of environmental and lifestyle factors. However, most studies to date have only considered how sperm concentration, motility and morphology are affected by such exposures. More recent studies, outlined in this review, have begun to examine the effect of environmental and lifestyle factors on sperm DNA integrity. Important factors appear to include: (i) Physical agents such as radiation and heat; (ii) Chemical agents such as cigarette smoke, airborne pollutants, and chemotherapeutic drugs; and (iii) Biological factors including sexually transmitted infections, increasing male age, elevated body mass index and medical conditions such as insulin dependent diabetes. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to account for how sperm DNA might be damaged by these factors. There is, however, uncertainty about the most appropriate laboratory test(s) to identify and quantify such DNA damage and no convincing evidence on possible therapeutic measures."
"Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofrequency radiation emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices can increase mercury release from amalgam restorations."
"Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs."
"Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose–response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness, dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects."
"Dozens of reviews and thousands of primary literature studies have shown the existence of many different non-thermal health effects of microwave and lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs); however current safety guidelines and standards only recognize thermal effects. This leaves both individuals and companies unprotected, particularly with the very large
increases in microwave frequency exposures that are occurring over time."
"This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role."
"The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects."
"After 1 h exposure to the radiofrequency field, a slight but statistically significant increase in caspase 3 activity, measured 6 h after exposure, was observed in Jurkat cells (32.4%) and in proliferating human PBLs (22%). In contrast, no effect was detected in quiescent human PBLs. In the same experimental conditions, apoptosis was also evaluated in Jurkat cells by Western blot analysis and in both cell types by flow cytometry."
"The GSM field is found to affect both females and males. Our results suggest that this field-radiation decreases the rate of cellular processes during gonad development in insects."
"Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of cells constituting an egg chamber (follicle cells, nurse cells and the oocyte) and in all stages of the early and mid-oogenesis, from germarium to stage 10, during which programmed cell death does not physiologically occur. Germarium and stages 7-8 were found to be the most sensitive developmental stages also in response to electromagnetic stress induced by the GSM and DCS fields and, moreover, germarium was found to be even more sensitive than stages 7-8."
"We present experimental data showing that the endogenous electric currents and the corresponding functions they control can be easily varied by externally applied electric or magnetic fields of similar or even significantly smaller intensities than those generating the endogenous currents. We present two possible ways by which external EMFs like those produced by human technology can distort the physiological endogenous electric currents and the corresponding biological/physiological functions: a) By direct interference between the external and the endogenous fields and, b) By alteration of the intracellular ionic concentrations (i.e. by changing the number of electric current carriers within the cells) after irregular gating of electrosensitive ion-channels on the cell membranes. Finally, we discuss how maintenance of this delicate electromagnetic equilibrium between living organisms and their natural environment, determines health and well-being, and how its disturbance will inevitably lead sooner or later to health effects."
"While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations. Average dosimetry in studies with real emissions can be reliable with increased number of field measurements, and variation in experimental outcomes due to exposure variability becomes less significant with increased number of experimental replications. We conclude that, in order for experimental findings to reflect reality, it is crucially important that exposures be performed by commercially available mobile phone handsets."
"In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects."
"SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error."
"RESULTS: The decrease in the reproductive capacity did not differ significantly between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The bioactivity window seems to be due to the intensity of radiation-field (10 microW/cm(2), 0.6-0.7 V/m) at 30 or 20 cm from the GSM 900 or 1800 mobile phone antenna, respectively."
"CONCLUSION: Long-term and intensive mobile phone use may cause inner ear damage. A large sample size would be required to reach definitive conclusions."
"In contrast the exposure to MP-EMFs revealed statistically significant decrease of the amplitude of P50 evoked by the high frequency stimuli, at Fp1 electrode lead as compared to themselves without MP-EMF exposure. These findings provide evidence that the MP-EMF emitted by mobile phone affect pre-attentive information processing as it is reflected in P50 evoked potential. The basis of such an effect is unclear, although several possibilities exist and call for potential directions of future research."
"Independent of the above effect, within the response inhibition condition there was also a significant gender X radiation interaction effect manifested at 15 leads by decreased P300 amplitudes of males in comparison to female subjects only at the presence of EMF. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Wi-Fi exposure may exert gender-related alterations on neural activity associated with the amount of attentional resources engaged during a linguistic test adjusted to induce WM."
"We observed higher mortality rates for all cancers and leukemia in some age groups in the area near the AM radio broadcasting towers. Although these findings do not prove a causal link between cancer and RF exposure from AM radio broadcasting towers, it does suggest that further analytical studies on this topic are needed in Korea."
"Electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range emitted from mobile phone jammers may lead to decreased motility and increased DNA fragmentation in human semen. It can be concluded that mobile phone jamming might exert adverse reproductive health effects."
"These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF-EMF on health can be understood."
"The Government of India's efforts in laying down regulations regarding the safety limits, manufacture, marketing, and mobile use are still in nascent stage. The need for stringent enforcement of laws for prevention of phone usage while driving and guidelines of medical regulatory bodies regarding rules and regulations of phone usage while at class or attending patients is of utmost importance."
"A significant increase in calcium ion efflux and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was observed in the exposed group as compared to the control. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the calcium-dependent protein kinase activity was observed. These results indicate that this type of radiation affects the membrane bound enzymes, which are associated with cell proliferation and differentiation, thereby pointing out its possible role as a tumor promoter."
"This study shows that the chronic exposure to these radiations cause statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in DNA single strand breaks in brain cells of rat."
"Our study reveals a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in PKC activity in hippocampus as compared to the remaining portion of the whole brain and the control group. A similar experiment conducted on hippocampus and the whole brain gave a similar result. Electron microscopic study shows an increase in the glial cell population in the exposed group as compared to the control group. This present study is indicative of a significant change after exposure to the above-mentioned field intensity. This suggests that chronic exposures may affect brain growth and development."
"Negative- and positive-cell controls were included into the experimental procedure. In comparison with control cells, the microtubule structure clearly altered after 3h of irradiation (p<0.05). Significantly decreased growth was noted in cells exposed for 3h three days after irradiation (p<0.05). It seems that the 935 MHz, low-level UHF radiation affects microtubule proteins, which consequently may obstruct cell growth."
"This large case-control study identified a significantly increased risk of leukemia among the offspring of men likely to have been occupationally exposed to EMF, with differing associations between males and females. Increased risks of chondrosarcoma and renal carcinoma were also seen, although based on smaller numbers. Further detailed investigations in this area are required to understand this association."
"Non-thermal effects of microwaves (MWs) are one of the main issues studied for revising
standards. The effects of MW exposure on apoptosis at non-thermal level (48 h, 2.45
GHz, 5 mW/cm2) have been studied. Results obtained assess non-thermal MW effects on
Fas, but neither on butyrate- nor on ceramide-induced apoptosis in human Jurkat T-cell
line. These data show that MW interacts either with Fas pathway between receptor and
caspase-3 activation or on membrane proteins (i.e. Fas receptor or
"We conclude that RF-EMF exposure induced a shift in thermal preference towards higher temperatures. The shift in preferred temperature might result from a cold thermal sensation. The change in sleep stage distribution may involve signals from thermoreceptors in the skin. Modulation of SWS may be a protective adaptation in response to RF-EMF exposure."
"A decrease in the alpha frequency band was observed during the 20 minutes of ELF exposure in the exposed hemisphere only. This result suggests that ELF fields as emitted from GSM handsets during the DTX mode may have an effect on the resting alpha band of the human EEG."
"Experimental procedure included exposed human astrocytoma cells to MW for 15, 30, 60 min and 24 h and unexposed sham-control samples. Double blind method was applied. Our results showed that cytoskeleton proteins, cell morphology and viability were not modified. Statistically significant results showed increased cell proliferation rate under 24h MW exposure. Hsp-70 and Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins were observed in control and treated samples, while an increased expression of connexin 43 proteins was found in exposed samples. The implication of these results on increased proliferation is the subject of our current research."
"Surveys were made to determine whether susceptibility to depressive illness and to myocardial infarction of people living in Wolverhampton was related to the intensity of 50 Hz magnetic field outside their homes. Comparing case with control addresses it was found that the field strength was significantly higher for depressive illness (P = 0.033) but not for myocardial infarction"
"The resonance solution also suggests that mitochondrial proton gradients may be critical to the process. The model offers an alternative explanation to the variations of Faraday's Law and the Boltzmann constant that have been employed to explain and to dismiss biological effects from weak magnetic fields."
"The frequency of pathological rats is significantly increased (p < 0.0001) from 62/372 (ratio: 0.17 ± 0.02) for control rats to 244/630 (ratio: 0.39 ± 0.03) in all exposed rats. Grouping the exposed animals according to the level of specific absorbed energy (J/kg) give significant difference in all levels above 1.5 J/kg. The exposure was 915 MHz microwaves either pulse modulated (PW) at 217 Hz with 0.57 ms pulse width, at 50 Hz with 6.6 ms pulse width or continuous wave (CW). The frequency of pathological rats (0.17) among controls in the various groups is not significantly different. The frequency of pathological rats was 170/481 (0.35±0.03) among rats exposed to pulse modulated (PW) and 74/149 (0.50±0.07) among rats exposed to continuous wave exposure (CW). These results are both highly significantly different to their corresponding controls (p < 0.0001) and the frequency of pathological rats after exposure to pulsed radiation (PW) is significantly less (p < 0.002) than after exposure to continuous radiation (CW)."
"These results demonstrate that acute short-term exposure to ELF-MF is able to modify a motor activity in dependence on the extent of AMPH-induced neurotransmitter imbalance."
"Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields."
As early as in the 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the “microwave syndrome”. The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. The microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment, even though the EMF were below today’s reference value. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from EMF. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were offered.
"Misclassification was substantial, with large random errors, small systematic errors, and no significant differences between cases and controls. The average difference between self-reported and operator start year was -0.62 (95% confidence interval: -1.42, 0.17) years for cases and -0.71 (-1.50, 0.07) years for controls, standard deviations were 3.92 and 4.17 years, respectively. Agreement between self-reported and operator-recorded data categorized into short, intermediate and long-term use was moderate (kappa statistic: 0.42). Should an association exist, dilution of risk estimates and distortion of exposure-response patterns for time since first mobile phone use could result from the large random errors in self-reported start year."
"Wireless networking is being increasingly used in schools and it is important to quantify the exposure of children to the radiofrequency fields. This paper presents a series of laboratory measurements with selected items of Wi-Fi equipment known to be popular in UK schools. Unlike most of the previous similar studies, a signal analyzer has been used in this work with a bandwidth of 25 MHz allowing the detection of the whole WLAN signal. The results revealed the effect of having multiple transmitting antennas, as currently used in most of the wireless enabled laptops."
"Mg(++)-ATPase activity (Vmax) decreased by 48.5% in the group exposed to microwave radiation, with no significant change in the group exposed to radiant heat. The decrease in Mg(++)-ATPase was partially compensated by a concomitant increase in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity (170% increase in Vmax over control) in animals exposed to microwave radiation, while no change occurred in the group exposed to radiant heat. This alteration in ATPase activity in the group exposed to microwave radiation is associated with a large decrease in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the group exposed to radiant heat had an increase in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. The most dramatic changes were found in the levels of arachidonic acid. Finally, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin label technique used to measure the fluidity of the canalicular membranes of the animals in the three groups (sham, microwave radiation and radiant heat) indicated that the results were different in the three groups, reflecting the changes found in their fatty acid composition."
"The data indicate that a significant, specific alteration
of cell-membrane ordering followed microwave exposure. This alteration was unique to
melanotic membranes and was due, at least in part, to the generation of oxygen radicals."
"A major concern of the adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) is cancer induction. Since the majority of cancers are initiated by damage to a cell's genome, studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on DNA and chromosomal structure. Additionally, DNA damage can lead to changes in cellular functions and cell death. Single cell gel electrophoresis, also known as the 'comet assay', has been widely used in EMF research to determine DNA damage, reflected as single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks. Studies have also been carried out to investigate chromosomal conformational changes and micronucleus formation in cells after exposure to EMF. This review describes the comet assay and its utility to qualitatively and quantitatively assess DNA damage, reviews studies that have investigated DNA strand breaks and other changes in DNA structure, and then discusses important lessons learned from our work in this area."
"Time-dependent and cell density-dependent changes in the transcription of c-fos, c-jun, c-myc and protein kinase C (beta-form) have been observed and quantitated. Additionally, changes in transcript levels, assessed by slot-blot analysis, have been found to parallel the changes in gene transcription. These data suggest an important role for magnetic field exposure in altering cellular processes."
"This study used slices of cortical tissue to evaluate the MMW effects on individual pyramidal neurons under conditions mimicking their in vivo environment. The applied levels of MMW power are three orders of magnitude below the existing safe limit for human exposure of 1 mW cm(-2). Surprisingly, even at these low power levels, MMWs were able to produce considerable changes in neuronal firing rate and plasma membrane properties. At the power density approaching 1 microW cm(-2), 1 min of MMW exposure reduced the firing rate to one third of the pre-exposure level in four out of eight examined neurons. The width of the action potentials was narrowed by MMW exposure to 17% of the baseline value and the membrane input resistance decreased to 54% of the baseline value across all neurons. These effects were short lasting (2 min or less) and were accompanied by MMW-induced heating of the bath solution at 3 degrees C. Comparison of these results with previously published data on the effects of general bath heating of 10 degrees C indicated that MMW-induced effects cannot be fully attributed to heating and may involve specific MMW absorption by the tissue. Blocking of the intracellular Ca(2+)-mediated signaling did not significantly alter the MMW-induced neuronal responses suggesting that MMWs interacted directly with the neuronal plasma membrane."
"After a 1 mT exposure and labeling with [(33)P], sp 27 isoforms b and c were phosphorylated whereas isoform 'a' was not observed. Sps 70i, 72c, and 90 were identified by commercial sp antibodies. Likewise, polypeptides a, b, and c were verified as sp 27 isoforms by Western blotting. Statistical evaluation of sp areas and densities, determined from fluorographs by Western-blot analysis, revealed a significant increase in sps 90 and 27a after a 1 mT magnetic field exposure. The 1 mT magnetic field interacts at the cellular level to induce a variety of sp species."
"Numerical models are used for analysis of Frohlich's vibration states in cells. Reduction of activity and of energy production in mitochondria, and disintegration of cytoskeleton structures by phosphorylation on the pathway of cancer trasformation can diminish excitation of the Frohlich's vibration states and of the generated electromagnetic field, which results in disturbances of the interaction forces between cells. Interaction forces between cancer cells may be smaller than interaction forces between healthy cells and cancer cells as follows from numerical models. Mechanism of malignity, i.e. local invasion, detachment of cancer cells, and metastasis, is assumed to depend on the electromagnetic field."
"In this paper, we study the effects of low-power microwaves (2.45 GHz) on the membrane fluidity of rod photoreceptor cells. The retina is expected to be very sensitive to microwave irradiation due to the polar character of the photoreceptor cells [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1273 (1995) 217] as well as to its high water content [Stud. Biophys. 81 (1981) 39]."
"In terms of lethal effectiveness, therefore, the ordering is, from most effective to least effective, 0.95 < 2.45 < 7.44 < 4.54 GHz. It is worth pointing out that American National Standard, C95.1, "Safety Level of Electromagnetic Radiation with Respect to Personnel," recommends an energy-density radiation protection guide of 1 mW-hr/cm2 averaged over any 0.1 hr period. For the most lethal frequency (0.95 GHz) the lethal energy constant was found to be 36,643 mW-sec/cm2 or 10.2 mW-hr/cm2 This is approximately a factor of ten greater than the radiation protection guide."
"Proximity to the line, defined as residing on a property abutting the right-of-way or being able to see the towers from one's house or yard, was positively associated with a measure of depressive symptoms. The association was not explained by demographic variables associated with depression or by attitudes about power lines or other environmental issues. The estimated prevalence odds ratio was 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.1). The estimate did not change appreciably when the definitions of depressive symptoms or of proximity to the line were altered."
"An experiment has been carried out to determine pathological and longevity effects caused by chronic microwave irradiation of mice. Two hundred males were exposed daily for 59 weeks to 0.100 w/cm2 for 4.5 minutes. This treatment produced an average body temperature rise of 3.3° C. Histopathology was performed on all dead mice in both irradiated and control group. Changes in body weight, in body temperature response to heating, and in the blood picture were not evident. Testicular degeneration in the form of tubule atrophy and neoplasms of the white cells were indicated. Longevity of the mice did not appear to be affected under the prevailing conditions."
"It was clear that even this close (1-3 km) to powerful transmissions, the dominant sources of radiofrequency fields were cell phone and national broadcast systems. There was no excess of cancer, birth defects or obstetric problems. There was heightened risk perception and a considerable excess of migraine, headache and dizziness, which appears to share a gradient with radiofrequency exposure."
"There was a tendency for reaction time to be shorter during exposure to radiation than in the sham (baseline) condition, an effect that was most marked for simple reaction time. However, no effects reached statistical significance after Bonferroni correction. Therefore, we conclude that this study on 18 children did not replicate our earlier finding in adults that exposure to microwave radiation was associated with a reduction in reaction time. It should be noted that the present study investigated the effects of radiation from a GSM handset, whereas in our previous study the effect on reaction time was observed only with a more powerful analogue handset."
"(1) The difference between ELF-EMF-exposed and control cells as well as the 'effect size' due to ELF-EMF exposure were biologically small (although statistically significant) with very few exceptions. (2) At certain ELF-EMF exposure conditions there was a statistically significant increase in genetic damage assessed from some end-points. (3) The mean indices for chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei end-points in ELF-EMF-exposed and control cells were within the spontaneous levels reported in historical database. (4) Considerable evidence for publication bias was found in the meta-analysis."